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218 W. Elizabeth Avenue
Linden, NJ 07036
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Your #1 source for quality auto repair & service, in the Central NJ area!
SAME LOCATION FOR OVER 56 YEARS (Since 1960)!
Fair pricing and honest reliable service.
Please give us a call, we'll treat you right!
"Conveniently located across from the Linden NJ Train Station!"
We are especially convenient for residents who commute into Newark & New York!
Taking a trip? Get your car serviced while you're away, take the train to Newark airport!
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Convenient automotive service for Cranford NJ, Clark NJ, Westfield NJ, Garwood NJ, Elizabeth NJ, Edison NJ, Kenilworth NJ, Union NJ, Fords NJ, Rahway NJ, Woodbridge NJ, Avenel NJ, Fords NJ, Colonia NJ, Iselin NJ, Carteret NJ, Scotch Plains NJ, Fanwood NJ, Mountainside NJ, Union NJ, Plainfield NJ, Roselle NJ, Roselle Park NJ, Watchung NJ, Warren NJ, New Providence NJ, Summit NJ, Berkeley Heights NJ residents!
QUALITY AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR, conveniently located across from the Linden NJ Train Station! Great for commuters, as the train goes directly to Penn Station NY from Long Branch NJ!
We gladly perform oil changes! We're not as cheap as those "quick change" places, but we do quality work that you can rely on. We use the highest quality oil and filters. We've done many oil changes, where we've seen stripped out, leaking drain plugs, that the place before, never bothered to repair, so we did. You get what you pay for!
NEED BRAKES? Give us a call!
Quality brake repair, reasonable prices - Linden, NJ!
Need a hitch? We sell and install the highest quality trailer hitches by the biggest names in the hitch market: Curt, Rigid, Reese, Draw-Tite Back To Top^
your check engine light on? This is a warning that something is wrong with your
car. In a lot of cases, it's something simple, and inexpensive to fix, but if
left for too long, could cause other more expensive problems. In a lot of cases,
you will notices the car not performing as normal. You need to nip this in the
We can help! Honest, reliable auto repair service in Linden NJ. We can diagnose and repair the problem and get you on your way, reasonably and quickly.
What Are Engine Sensors, and What Do
The engine computer, or Electronic Control Module (ECM) and its associated sensors control almost every aspect of engine performance. The following glossary of terms defines 17 of the most common sensors and other components found on a modern, computer-controlled automobile.
Coolant Temperature Sensor (CTS)
Measures the temperature in the cooling system, so the computer may make adjustments based on the engine's operating temperature. Can also control the dashboard warning light.
Crankshaft or Camshaft Position Sensor
Monitors the rotation of the engine and tells the computer exactly when to trigger the fuel injectors or the ignition spark.
Detonation (Knock) Sensor
Listens for engine "ping" so the computer can retard spark timing, and thereby reduce emissions and overheating.
Controls spark timing, fuel delivery and emission controls. Continuously receives signals from sensors and input devices on or near the engine; send control signals to valves, controllers and other output devices. Stores trouble codes and warns driver when service is needed.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve
Recirculates a measured amount of exhaust gas into the engine's air intake to lower combustion temperatures and reduce emissions, especially NOx.
EGR Valve Position Sensor
Detects the opening of the EGR valve so the computer can make adjustments to optimize performance.
Injects fuel into the intake manifold. The computer tells the injector exactly when and how much fuel to inject in order to produce the needed amount of power.
Idle Speed Control Actuator
Adjusts the idle speed as dictated by the computer, to prevent idle fluctuations and keep emissions low.
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor
Reads a change in manifold pressure. The computer uses this information to adjust timing advance and air/fuel ratio.
Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor
Measures the mass of the air drawn through the engine's air intake, so the computer can compensate for altitude and temperature changes.
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) Valve
Recirculates partially burned gases from the crankcase into the combustion chamber to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions while preventing the buildup of sludge and corrosion.
Measures the percentage of oxygen in the exhaust, and tells the computer whether the fuel/air mixture is too rich or too lean.
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
Monitors the position of the accelerator pedal and throttle linkage so the computer can make accurate air/fuel mixture adjustments. Back To Top^
Cars today are built better than years past, but that doesn't mean they don't need regular servicing!
They may not need a typical tune-up (spark plugs) till around 100K miles, but they still need regular servicing, such as transmission fluid changes (with the correct fluid), throttle body cleaning, brakes, air and cabin filters.
As your car starts approaching 100K miles, it's important to do the necessary servicing like a new timing belt if needed, spark pugs, PCV valve, belts, fluid replacements, and not letting these services go undone.
For instance, I've seen people let their spark plugs go to 140K miles, and the threads get so carboned up, that they get frozen in the head, and won't come out, without thousands of dollars worth of work. A broken timing belt, will destroy an engine. It's always best to get your car serviced regularly and have any problems found, fixed right away!
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Before we even start: Never check your oil. CHECK YOUR OIL REGULARLY! Vehicles today use very light weight synthetic oils, and they tend to use oil, as well as leak it. People seem to think that just because they change their oil at 5K miles, they don't have to check it. Many cars come in for an oil change either very low on oil, or sometimes almost empty. By this time, the damage is done, and beyond repair. Prevent this by regularly checking your oil!
1: Put off the recommended maintenance. There's a reason the car manufacturer gives you that little book when you buy a car. It contains important maintenance guidelines for the age and mileage of your car. By following what it says, you can keep your car running smoothly and safely—and save on having to pay for big repairs later.
2: Ignore any warning lights. Most cars come with a check engine light and other warning lights. If any warning light goes off, it's time to take your car to a qualified mechanic ASAP.
3: Never change the air filter. A fresh air filter keeps your engine running smoothly and improves your car's fuel efficiency. Most manufacturers suggest you replace your filter every 12,000 to 15,000 miles. (Err on the lower side if you drive in dusty conditions or in stop-and-go circumstances.)
4: Never check your tires' air levels. Not having the right tire pressure makes for unsafe driving and reduced fuel efficiency. Most vehicles list tire pressure requirements on the driver side door post so you know how much air to give your tires.
5: Have an unqualified person work on your car. Take the time to find a qualified car mechanic. Keep in mind that you could qualify as "unqualified" if a repair is beyond your skill level. Check out our article on how to handle an auto repair for helpful tips on finding a qualified mechanic.
6: Leave keys in the ignition of an unattended car. This is one of the easiest ways to tempt car thieves - especially during the colder months of the year.
7: Run your gas tank down to empty. Doing so cuts the life of the fuel pump - and puts you at risk of running out before you get to a station.
8: Rarely wash your car. A thorough wash helps preserve the exterior of your car. That can ultimately help your car retain its resale value. A good wash is especially important during winter, when road salt does a number on cars. Back To Top^
Car windows can quickly steam up in winter when moisture in the warm cabin air creates condensation.
To clear a foggy car windshield and/or windows, make sure your climate control system is in fresh-air mode (running it in recirculation mode will cause moisture to accumulate). And although it might seem counterintuitive, you should turn your car's air conditioning on. It will dehumidify the air, which will reduce the chances of a foggy car windshield. Plus setting it to a high temperature should keep the car toasty, too. Back To Top^
New car technology may lead to sticker shock at repair shops
Back-up cameras and lane-departure warnings may help people drive more safely, but they also drive up newer vehicles’ repair bills, the American Automobile Association reported in a recent study.
And a driver need not have been in a crash to face a four-figure repair bill. Even something as innocuous as an unfortunately placed windshield chip can cost big money if it affects the performance of an on-board safety system, the auto club reported.
“It’s just unbelievable,” one body shop owner said about the complexity of repairing vehicles equipped with advanced driver-assistance systems.
The owner said he has spent thousands of dollars training his staff to work on such vehicles, and replacing parts is only one facet of such repairs.
“You have to set up targets for calibration, and every vehicle is different,” and repair of some systems must be referred to dealer shops because it involves technology that is proprietary to the vehicle manufacturers.
“It is not unusual for windshields to get chipped or cracked, especially for drivers who commute on a daily basis
“This may be an eyesore, but when it falls in the line of sight of a camera or the driver, it becomes a safety issue that needs immediate attention by a facility qualified to work on these systems,” the report said.
Cameras, radar, and ultrasonic sensors built into bumpers, body panels, and even side mirrors are also vulnerable.
“While most drivers may not find themselves in a collision, these parts can easily be damaged when pulling out of a garage or bumping into objects.”
When a customer brings a vehicle to an independent repair shop and it has to refer some of the work to a dealer shop, that becomes a “sublet repair” that eats up most, if not all, of the profit.
And when a particular repair is referred to a dealer, “then they [customers] feel that you’re telling them you can’t fix their car.”
Calibration is the biggest obstacle for independent repair shops.
“I can’t even fix most of these now because of the reprogramming requirements,” said one owner. “You can fix it, but you can’t make it work.”
As technology continues to evolve, drivers need to be better educated and more aware of their vehicles’ capabilities. This includes understanding how the vehicle systems work as well as how much repairs may cost if damaged.
With one in three Americans unable to afford even $500 in unexpected repairs, AAA strongly urges consumers to consider the potential repair costs of these advanced systems as well as perform an insurance policy review, the auto club said.
One shop owner said insurance so far has covered all of his shop’s customers technology-related windshield replacements, but his customers are often still on the hook for their policies deductibles.
“More and more cars are coming with other stuff on the windows besides the rear-view mirror.”
Manufacturers specify that any cameras or sensors associated with replacement glass need to be recalibrated, at a cost typically ranging between $150 and $230, and windshields have become significantly more expensive than they used to be.
In an article published during the summer, Consumer Reports also noted that road grime or winter’s ice and snow also can interfere with navigation systems’ performance, especially devices that rely on cameras.
While auto manufacturers are developing “self-cleaning” features for those systems, they are far from universal.
And like improper calibration, dirt, frost, or other interference may render safety systems inoperative or inaccurate. Back To Top^
Towing 101 – What You Need To Know
The fact that anyone can hook up a trailer/boat/camper and tow it down the road can make professional drivers, insurance companies and the general public extremely nervous. Just because you can, doesn’t mean you should, not without at least some basic knowledge.
Before you hook up that 34’ foot speed boat to your 1980’s era station wagon, here are a few things to keep in mind.
Know Your Weights
The first step to a safe towing operation is determining your weights – how much both the load you plan to tow weighs, and how much the vehicle is capable of towing.
Starting with the vehicle, you can often find this information printed on a metal plate or sticker on the vehicle itself. Typically, this plate/sticker is near the driver’s door and lists tire pressure, maximum towing weight and maximum payload. Write down the maximum towing and payload numbers.
Next, determine how much your load weighs. In the case of campers and boats, this information is also quite often found on the trailer itself on a similar metal plate like on the vehicle.
For trailers, you will often find the empty weight listed and will either need to weigh the load at a scale or have a pretty good idea how much cargo you are planning on carrying.
While every trailer is different, an example to use for reference is a 6’x12’ U-Haul cargo trailer. This four-wheel trailer (2×2) has a maximum capacity of 2,500 lbs of cargo. The average weight of an empty dresser is between 100-150 lbs depending on height and the wood it’s made from. On the heavy side, this trailer can tow around 16 dressers.
On the other hand, flatbed trailers can often haul upwards of 7,000 lbs depending on the number of axles. This is quite a bit when you consider the average ATV weighs between 350 and 400 lbs.
Putting The Numbers Together
Now that you know how much you plan to tow and how much the vehicle you plan to tow with is capable of towing, it is simple math right? Not exactly. There are some terms you also have to know, such as:
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) is the maximum amount of total weight the vehicle can handle including towing and payload. It is also the gross amount of weight the trailer is able to carry, including the weight of the trailer itself. So, a 7,000-pound trailer may be able to handle only 6,000 poundds, once you subtract the weight of the trailer.
Tongue Weight (TW) is the downward pressure on the ball by the trailer coupler (attachment part from the trailer, boat or camper). Put too much weight on the ball, and your tow vehicle will raise in the front and the rear brakes will be overworked. If you have ever seen a vehicle towing and it is far from level, it is likely there is too much weight on the ball.
Gross Combined Weight Rating (GCWR) is the total mass of everything – including what you are towing, what you are putting in the cabin and the passenger’s weight along with fuel.
Adding this all together and matching it against the vehicles GCWR maximum will tell you whether you are being safe or not.
If you have done your math correctly and everything you are towing/hauling is under the GCWR, then it is time to start the towing operation. There are several keys when hooking up a load that apply to everything (trailer, camper or a boat). These keys are:
> Check the hitch and ball
> Check lights
> Hook up to the ball completely
> Cross chains for safety
> Level the load
> Tires – finally check the tire pressure and wear/tear of all your tires. The last thing you want to do while towing is to blow a tire – a very serious issue.
On the Road
Finally, when out on the road, there are a variety of items you need to keep in mind. For starters, you have to adjust your driving habits to accommodate for the load you are towing.
This means no sharp turns, no sharp accelerations and no reckless driving.
When towing, you will want to do everything nice and slow. This means from a dead stop, you will want to slowly gain speed and likewise when slowing down, you will want to anticipate stopping and ease into it.
Also, when turning, make sure that your turns are as wide as you can make them. Glide through the curves and gradually bring the load along. The sharper you turn, the more volatile the load becomes and more likely it could sway out of control.
While towing doesn’t have to be extremely difficult, understanding the right way to tow can be the difference between a safe towing operation and a disaster. Follow these tips and you’ll keep yourself and others on the road safe. Back To Top^
In an effort to be more friendly to the environment, companies are making more and more automotive components out of renewable materials, such as soy or even cannabis. Unfortunately, a side effect of building cars out of edible materials is that rodents are eating them.
The use of soy in car parts is nothing new. Ford has been making seats out of a soybean-based foam for the past ten years. Ford also uses soy rather than petroleum for wire insulation. However, some owners have been running into unforeseen problems when rodents find their way into cars and eat the edible insulation.
Ford is not alone in suffering this problem. In 2016, a class-action lawsuit was filed against Toyota claiming the company should cover this type of damage after an owner was forced to pay around $1,500 to fix the chewed wiring in his 2012 Tundra under warranty.
"We think the addition of soy in the insulation has taken the episode of rats chewing through the wires through the roof," said an attorney, who is involved with the class-action lawsuit.
Toyota, however, denies that modern insulation is any more appealing to rodents than the old petroleum-based insulation. “Rodent damage to vehicle wiring occurs across the industry, and the issue is not brand- or model-specific. We are currently not aware of any scientific evidence that shows rodents are attracted to automotive wiring because of alleged soy-based content," the company retorted.
Toyota is correct that the problem is not limited to any particular brand or model. The use of renewable materials such as soy has spread across the entire automotive industry, which means that despite the class-action lawsuit applying only to owners of 2012 to 2016 Toyotas, similar issues could occur in pretty much any modern car.
Mouse infestations in vehicles, even those that are driven regularly, have been a problem for a long time. Mice chewing wires and causing electrical problems is nothing new. But now that soy has become popular as an insulation, instances of this type of problem appear to be on the rise. Back To Top^
What Are Daytime Running Lights and Why Do I Need Them?
Daytime running lights help keep you safe, but there are a few things to know about this lighting system.
Have you ever been driving at dusk, in the rain, or after dark and seen a car go by without its headlights on? Maybe it was a black car and you noticed it at the last second. Ideally, cars would have a system that always turned the headlights on when needed, but for a variety of reasons, including cost, automakers don’t make headlights automatic in all cars. Even those vehicles that do have the feature usually have a way to disable it and go to an on/off function controlled by the driver. Daytime running lights (or DRLs) help with this problem of having completely dark cars being operated in low light conditions and are also intended to help in other circumstances.
DRLs were originally made popular in parts of the world where daylight can often be dim and short in duration. They work great as a way to identify the car using them to other cars on the road. Unlike headlights, they are not intended to illuminate the road ahead, and they don’t also have any rear marker lights. They are simply dim lights at the front of the vehicle.
In vehicles equipped with daytime running lights or DRLs, the system is automatic. They are intended to be on when the vehicle is driven without requiring any driver input. The way they work varies from automaker to automaker, and even from model to model. In nearly all the systems originally developed, they worked by using a lower power setting on already existing lights, typically the high beams. As time went on, many automakers have adopted DRLs as a sort of jewelry or brand identifier and LED bulbs are now popular.
Once enabled, DRLs are completely automatic and work without any need for driver involvement. They are usually on when the car is on, but some automakers, Subaru for example, enable them only when the vehicle is in a gear other than “Park.” When the headlights are turned on by the driver or the automatic system the vehicle is equipped with, the DRLs may stay on or turn off. Once the headlights are enabled they are no longer needed, except again, as a way to make the car look distinctive.
DRLs are pretty simple to understand and the reasons why they are used are hard to argue against. Yet some do. In fact, there are anti-DRL groups who lobby against them. The main argument put forth is that they are not “effective.” Or not “necessary.” We won’t weigh in on the subject, but if there is some harm in having DRLs it is hard to understand what it might be. Canada has mandated all new cars have DRLs since 1989 and has fines for drivers not using them.
In some vehicles equipped with DRLs, the system can be disabled, perhaps to satisfy the naysayers, or perhaps for those who want to operate in stealth mode. If your vehicle’s DRLs are not working for some reason, or if just one is, the typical cause is a bulb having burned out. In many cars, the bulb is shared with another function, so try the other lights to see if you can identify the cause. Before you go too far into the troubleshooting process, we suggest a quick glance at the owner’s manual. They may just be in the off position or not enabled in the scenario you expect. Back To Top^
SYNTHETIC VS NON SYNTHETIC
Because like many other high-tech products today, motor oils are extremely difficult to understand—and unlike a smartphone, you can’t just take oil apart. Complicating matters further, when the GF-4 oil standard came out awhile back, it drastically reduced the zinc and phosphorus used in oil for anti-wear protection. While newer, roller-valvetrain Vettes from later C4s to C7s aren’t affected, it’s a serious concern for owners of earlier, flat-tappet-valvetrain models.
The Refining Process
Crude oil contains thousands of compounds. Thanks to refineries, companies are able to use different refining processes that turn crude oil into everyday items such as lubricating oils, fuels, plastics, and waxes.
How Crude Oil is Refined
Three major refinery processes—separation, conversion, and purification—turn crude oil into finished products.
Separation is a distillation process that uses a series of separation (or distillation) towers and heat to physically separate crude oil into its naturally occurring components.
In the separation towers, a furnace heats and vaporizes the crude oil. The vapor/liquid mix is fed into the bottom of the tower, where temps can reach 750 degrees (F). Components that are still liquid at those high temps become the tower’s bottom product. Components in vapor form rise up through a series of distillation stages. As the temps decrease, the components condense and end up in their predetermined spots. So the heavy stuff like “bottoms” (which becomes asphalt base) stays on the bottom, mid-weight stuff like gas oil and diesel distillate (which become gasoline and diesel) goes in the middle, and lightweight stuff like “light ends” (which becomes propane) goes to the top.
But gas oil and diesel distillate doesn’t just “become” the gasoline and diesel that we pump into our vehicles. That’s where conversion comes in.
Conversion processes take low-demand products like heavy oil and rearrange the molecules into high-demand products like gasoline. This is possible because all of the products in the refinery are based on hydrocarbons with carbon and hydrogen chains.
Special units called fluidized catalytic crackers (FCCs), cokers, and hydrocrackers are used to “cut” the heavy oil’s longer carbon chains into shorter chains, which converts heavier hydrocarbons into lighter ones like gasoline. Additionally, there are catalytic reformer and alkylation conversion processes that can put these chains together, and even change the form of the chains.
Other conversion processes include delayed cokers, which convert the heaviest vacuum tower components into other products, and catalytic reforming, which increases the octane number of gasoline blends.
The purification stage physically cleans unwanted substances out of the product. This is done by hydrotreating, a process that puts the product in contact with hydrogen, then uses heat and high pressure in the presence of a catalyst. The result is hydrogen sulfide—and desulfurized product. While sulphur is the main target, aromatic hydrocarbons and paraffin wax are removed too.
How Lube Distillates Become Base Oil
Now let’s narrow down the refining process to lubricants:
After crude oil passes through the separation towers, it’s sent to cracking units to break up the hydrocarbons’ long carbon chains. This creates a group of carbon compounds that have between 25 and 45 carbon atoms, called lube distillates.
Next comes processing, where solvent extraction, dewaxing, or hydrotreating is used:
> Solvent extraction is a conventional process that removes aromatics.
> Dewaxing is either a conventional solvent process or a catalytic chemical process that removes long-chain, high-melting paraffins.
> Hydrotreating is a hydrogen treatment that removes carbon-to-carbon double bonds in aromatics and unsaturated paraffinics.
The processing methods can vary, depending on the required quality of the finished base oil. For instance, a solvent extraction method is used for Group I oils, and a more advanced hydrocracking method is used for Group II and III oils.
Base oils that are more highly processed have a higher purity, a higher group number, higher performance, and, usually, a higher cost. We’ll have more on oil base-stock group numbers in a bit.
Carbon and hydrogen molecules known as hydrocarbons make up the foundation of mineral oils. Different types of hydrocarbon molecules have different characteristics, and some types are more desirable for creating motor oil than others.
The foundations of synthetic oils vary: Some are chemically altered mineral oils, while others are esters or polyalphaolefins.
Let’s separate these molecules into two groups—mineral base oils and synthetic base oils—and discuss their different characteristics.
Mineral Base Stocks
There are three main groups of mineral base oil:
The first are paraffinics, which may be further divided into two subgroups: normal paraffinics and iso-paraffinics.
Normal paraffinics are straight-chain hydrocarbons. Because they are waxy, iso-paraffinics are typically preferred. The latter contain side chains that improve the viscosity index. They also have better oxidation stability, all of which has earned them a reputation as being the best mineral lubricants.
Naphthenics have the characteristic of naphthenes—saturated hydrocarbons with molecules containing at least one closed ring of carbon atoms. Similar to ring compounds like aromatics (but lacking double bonds), naphthenics are considered better than aromatics, but inferior to paraffinics.
Aromatics are unsaturated molecules with one or more benzene rings. Because aromatics are undesirable for motor oils, they’re normally extracted, and only trace amounts are left after refining.
Synthetic Base Stocks
There are several main groups of synthetic base oil used in automotive applications:
Polyalphaolefins (PAOs) are branched-chain, isoparaffinic hydrocarbons known as synthetic hydrocarbons. They’re similar to mineral hydrocarbons, but instead of being extracted like mineral oils, PAOs are manmade using a chemical process. The result is purer, uniformly sized molecules that are completely saturated—they have high oxidative and thermal stability, a high viscosity index, and a very low pour point. They’re also superior in extremely hot or cold temperatures. This highly versatile base stock is great as high-performance motor oil, and superior to mineral oil. The only downsides are a low solubility (which results in poor additive compatibility) and a high price.
Esters like diesters and polyol esters are branched synthetic hydrocarbons that are structurally similar to PAOs. The difference lies in an ester’s hydrocarbon molecules, which contain oxygen in the form of ester linkages. These linkages polarize the molecules, which results in esters having a higher flash point and lower volatility compared with PAOs. The polarity also helps esters “stick” to the engine’s metal surfaces, which gives them additional film strength and lower energy consumption. They’re also great detergents, more environmentally friendly, and they’re very flexible so engineers can build a specific oil for specific applications. Downsides are that esters can affect the elastomer material used in engine seals, and they can react if they come into contact with water. While esters were some of the first synthetic automotive oils, they’ve been surpassed by PAOs due to a PAO’s lower cost and ease of formulation.
Through advanced chemical processes, the new Group III+ base oils (which we’ll discuss shortly) can now be considered a “synthetic.”
As defined by the American Petroleum Institute (API), a base stock is “a lubricant component that is produced by a single manufacturer to the same specifications (independent of feed source or manufacturer’s location); that meets the same manufacturer’s specification; and that is identified by a unique formula, product identification number, or both.”
Base stocks are divided into five categories, or groups: Group I, Group II, Group III, Group IV, and Group V. Through a specific test method, each group has a different makeup of saturates, sulfur percentages, and viscosity index.
Group I: Base stocks that contain less than 90 percent saturates and/or greater than 0.03 percent sulphur, and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.
Group II: Base stocks that contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to 0.03 percent sulphur, and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.
Group III: Base stocks that contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to 0.03 percent sulphur, and have a viscosity index greater than or equal to 120.
Group IV: Base stocks are polyalphaolefins (PAO) with no unsaturated hydrocarbons or sulfur. PAOs may be interchanged without additional qualification testing, as long as the interchange PAO meets the original PAO manufacturer’s specs in physical and chemical properties.
The following key properties need to be met in the substituted stock:
1. Kinematic viscosity at 100, 40, and -40 degrees (C)
2. Viscosity index
3. Noack rating (volatility)
4. Pour point
Group V: Base stocks that include all other base stocks not included in Group I, II, III, or IV. Group Vs like esters are typically used for creating oil additives.
Group III+ Base Stocks
While not currently included in the base-stock groups, III+ base stocks bridge the gap between the highly refined mineral Group III base stocks and the expensive, synthetic Group IV base stocks. They provide performance that’s above what normal mineral oils can give, yet they’re more affordable than the Group IV synthetics—and as you can imagine, they’re very popular these days. ExxonMobil’s Visom is an example of a Group III+ base stock.
Oil Additive Packages
Motor oil is made by combining base oil with a complex mixture of up to 15 additives. Generally speaking, there are two types of fluids that make up an additive package: a detergent-inhibitor package, and a viscosity-index improver.
The detergent inhibitor (or DI) package is a mixture of performance additives that’s needed for an oil formulation.
> Anti-foams are non-soluble silicone molecules that help prevent oil from foaming, and also help disperse foam that’s already formed.
> Antioxidants like amines and phenolics help fight oxidation, a reactive process that can create carbon deposits in an engine.
> Detergents are metals and organic chemicals that clean engine deposits and neutralize acid byproducts from combustion. Common metal atoms used include calcium, magnesium, and sodium; common organic products include salicylates, sulfonates, and phenates.
> Diluent oil, or carrier oil, is a mineral oil that helps the solubility of the additives, and ensures that the viscosity is in the correct range for pumping and blending.
> Dispersants suspend and disperse the solid pieces left over from the combustion of fuel. As those pieces would otherwise end up as engine sludge, dispersants are kind of a big deal. Not surprisingly, they’re one of the main components of a DI pack.
> Friction modifiers are molecules that, thanks to their polarity, attach to an engine’s metal surfaces to improve lubricity. They can also improve fuel economy. Organic friction modifiers are typically esters or glycerol mono-oleates (GMO). Inorganic Friction modifiers are molybdenum compounds.
> Pour-point depressants keep the trace amounts of paraffins in oil from growing crystals. PPDs aren’t usually needed in PAO- and ester-based oils, as they don’t contain wax.
> Rust/corrosion inhibitors attach to, and protect, engine metals like iron from acid-, oxygen-, and water-based corrosion.
> Seal conditioners are esters that keep seals pliable. They are especially needed in Group III and Group IV oils, which are knownto shrink and harden seals.
> Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) has been used for years as an affordable anti-wear, extreme-pressure, antioxidant additive. ZDDP isalso the most well-known additive, as it is both erroneously vilified for ruining catalytic converters and O2 sensors, and celebrated for keeping flat-tappet engines alive. We’ll discuss ZDDP in more detail in the additives section.
Viscosity-index improvers, as their name implies, improve a finished oil’s viscosity index. The key to VIIs is their large polymeric molecules: They coil up when cold, which makes little difference to the oil’s viscosity. But when hot, VIIs uncoil and stretch out, which reduces oil thinning—and increases the oil’s viscosity. That improved viscosity index allows manufacturers to create multi-viscosity oils.
At this point, you should have a basic understanding of how crude oil is refined into base stock, then combined with additives to create motor oil.
If your head hasn’t exploded at this point, relax—the hard part’s over. Now, let’s discuss some of the more hands-on aspects of motor oil: oil weights, single- and multi-grade oils, and industry standards.
When discussing the weight of a motor oil, we think of its “thickness.” But we’re really discussing viscosity. There are many different measurements and classifications for lubricant viscosity, and this topic gets complex in a hurry. But the core concept is pretty easy to understand.
Viscosity is defined as a physical measurement of a lubricant’s internal resistance to flow. Let’s use water and honey as examples: Water, which flows easily, has a low viscosity. Honey, which doesn’t flow easily, has a high viscosity.
There are several conditions that affect the viscosity of a lubricant in an engine: they include temperature, speed, and load.
The temperature of an engine’s operation changes the viscosity of a lubricant. Generally, when the temp goes up, viscosity goes down, and when the temp goes down, viscosity goes up.
The speed of an engine’s operation affects what viscosities can be used. The lubricant will need to flow well at high speeds, but it can’t be too thin at lower speeds or it won’t lubricate correctly.
The load of an engine’s operation also affects what viscosities can be used. Heavy loads can compress the lubricant film, so a higher viscosity may be needed to prevent damage. However, if the engine only sees normal load conditions, a lower viscosity may be adequate—and with less resistance, it can result in better fuel economy as well.
To determine the proper viscosity for your engine, you’ll need to account for its operating temperature and environment, rpm range, and types of loads experienced. The right viscosity should provide an adequate lubrication film at both high and low temperatures. It should also flow well at both high and low temps and operating speeds, and possess a film strength that stands up to light and extreme operating loads. If that seems like a tall order, it is.
Standard Oil-Testing Methods
Because today’s vehicles and ever-tightening regulations keep asking more of motor oils, manufacturers must continually improve their oils to meet that challenge. And that’s where advanced test methods come in. There are numerous oil-testing methods conducted by organizations such as ASTM International and SAE, as well as the oil manufacturers themselves. Here are a few examples of these tests:
The base number test measures a lubricant’s reserve alkalinity, which helps control acids created during the combustion process.
The flash point test determines the temp at which oil gives off vapors that can be ignited with a flame. As you can imagine, the higher the flash point, the better.
The pour point test finds the lowest temp at which the oil will flow, using a specific test method and measured in degrees F. The lower the pour point, the better.
The shear stability test measures how much viscosity oil loses during operation. After its viscosity is measured, oil is run through extreme shearing conditions. The viscosity is measured after testing, and the difference between the pre- and post-test oil viscosities determines the percentage of viscosity lost.
Viscosity tests measure the time it takes a lubricant to flow by gravity. Some viscosity tests include low-temperature cranking viscosity, low-temp pumping viscosity, and high-temp kinematic viscosity.
The viscosity index is a number that shows oil’s relative change of viscosity over a temp range. The higher the VI, the smaller the viscosity change over temperature, which is better.
Simple terms like “30 weight” come from the complex SAE J300 standard, which is a viscosity classification for engine oils. It classifies viscosity grades based on low-temp tests such as low-temp cranking viscosity and low-temp pumping viscosity, and high-temp tests such as kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees (C).
For example, a 0W viscosity grade has a 3.8 kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees, while a 50 viscosity grade has a 16.3 kinematic viscosity at the same temp. Or, simplified, the 0W is thin, while the 50 is thick.
Engine-oil weights are as follows:
> “W” (winter) weights: 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, 25W
> Standard weights: 16 (new), 20, 30, 40, 50, 60
Multi-Grade vs. Single-Grade Oil
In the early days, all cars used single-grade oils. However, today’s street vehicles overwhelmingly use multi-grades. Single-grade oils can still found in everything from racing cars to lawn tractors, but this type accounts for only a small portion of overall motor-oil production.
Multi-grade (or multi-viscosity) oils like 5W-30 use viscosity-index improvers (VIIs) that allow the oil to perform well in nearly all temperature ranges: A 5W-30 multi-grade oil provides the cold cranking protection of a 5W and the high temperature viscosity of a 30-weight oil in one—that is, it’s thin enough to flow in low-temp situations like cold startups, yet thick enough to protect in high-temp situations like extended high-rpm driving. Multi-grades also provide incremental fuel-economy savings over single-grade oils.
Single-grade (or single-viscosity) oils like 30 weight are just that, a single viscosity. They don’t use VIIs and, as such, aren’t recommended in certain climates (cold winters in the northeast, for example). While it used to be said that in favorable summer weather, a single-grade oil could provide better engine-bearing protection than a multi-grade, today’s advanced multi-grade oils provide much better protection and a much greater operating-temp range.
Note that a multi-grade oil is almost always the smart choice for your street-driven Corvette.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a trade association that grades motor oils. The institute’s starburst graphic, which can be found on most quarts of oil, advertises that the oil meets the current engine-protection standard and fuel-economy requirements of ILSAC (more on that anon). API uses a two-letter service category designation that denotes the current performance standard.
ILSAC, the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee, is a trade organization that works with vehicle manufacturers and commercial engine-oil producers, and is responsible for creating passenger-car engine-oil specifications. The API and ILSAC have worked cooperatively for years, and their ratings track on a parallel path. ILSAC uses a three-digit alphanumeric service-category designation that denotes the current performance standard.
Current API/ILSAC Oil Standards
> API: SN (2010-up)
> ILSAC: GF-5 (2010-up)
(Note that the API also has an oil standard for diesel engines; the current, 2007-up standard is CJ-4.)
API’s SN standard was introduced in October 2010, and provides improved high-temp deposit protection for pistons, more-stringent sludge control, and seal compatibility. API SN with Resource Conserving matches ILSAC GF-5 by combining API SN performance with improved fuel economy, turbocharger protection, emission-control-system compatibility, and protection of engines operating on ethanol- containing fuels up to E85.
ILSAC’s GF-5 standard was also introduced in October 2010, and provides improved high-temp deposit protection for pistons and turbochargers, more-stringent sludge control, improved fuel economy, enhanced emission-control-system compatibility, seal compatibility, and protection of engines operating on ethanol-containing fuels up to E85.
Previous Oil Standards
> API: SJ (1996-older), SL (2001-older), SM (2004-older)
> ILSAC: NA (all previous standards obsolete)
Obsolete Oil Standards
> API: SA, SB, SC, SD, SE, SF, SG, SH
> ILSAC: GF-1, GF-2, GF-3, GF-4
Decoding an Oil Container
Many people have no idea how to read a quart of oil. Thankfully, API’s starburst and ILSAC’s “donut” make choosing the latest oil-standard spec easy.
The API starburst is usually found on the front of the bottle and reads, “AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE CERTIFIED FOR GASOLINE ENGINES.”
The ILSAC donut is usually found on the back of the bottle. We’ll use the current standard on a quart of 5W-30 oil: “API SERVICE SN SAE 5W-30 RESOURCE CONSERVING.”
The bottle may also show previous API specs that the oil also covers, as well as manufacturer specs such as “GM 6094M” and “GM 4718M.”
Picking up a name-brand offering with the current performance standards on the bottle is the best way to choose a quality oil. But look closely: On a recent trip to a big-box store, we found Mobil 1 Extended Performance “gold” 5-quart containers with the new SN standard, but the Mobil 1 “blue” 5-quart containers only had the SL standard.
Additives, Specialty Oils, and Flat-Tappet Protection
Since the beginning of the automobile and up to the early 1970s, drivers relied on mineral oil to protect their engines. Then came synthetics, with their superior protection qualities (and a few shortcomings, like making engine seals shrink). The oil companies learned from early mistakes, and made synthetics more user friendly. Today, oil engineers can spend their entire careers on developing new additive packages. Why is that important? Read on.
You may be aware that many older engines used flat-tappet cams. And pre-1990s oils had high (1,000-plus ppm) levels of zinc and phosphorus (specifically, zinc dialkyldithiophosphates, or ZDDP), which provided the protection those flat-tappet engines needed.
But in the ’90s, ZDDP levels were reduced in an effort to better protect oxygen sensors and catalytic converters. The auto industry had largely moved to roller cams anyway, so the 800 parts-per-million limit of ZDDP worked fine with newer engines.
However, those ’90s oils’ ZDDP levels were too low to protect flat-tappet engines, and as the tales of engine wear appeared, the aftermarket exploded with ZDDP additives.
To this day there’s a dedicated additive following out there, and some enthusiasts even use diesel-specific oils in an attempt to better protect their valuable engines. But according to the experts we consulted, you shouldn’t use those additives (or diesel oils) in your Corvette.
Why? Oil is a delicate mixture, and adding ZDDP or other substances to your oil can upset that mix. For that reason, in most cases, running additives does more harm (in the form of wear) than good.
If you’re concerned about protecting your Corvette’s flat-tappet engine, or just want a bit more protection for your late-model C4-C7, you have a few options:
1. Use Mobil 1’s 15-50. This heavier-weight oil offers increased ZDDP content, added film strength, and better high-temp protection. And even though it has around 1,200 ppm phosphorus and 1,300 ppm zinc, it’s still API certified, as this viscosity isn’t required to have the lower ZDDP level.
2. Use a “street/’strip” oil like Brad Penn Grade 1. Brad Penn, while not a household name, has a great reputation for producing quality oils. Pennsylvania-grade crude oil is known for high-quality base stocks and great film strengths. Grade 1 adds high ZDDP concentrations that, while not recommended for late-model vehicles, is said to provide outstanding protection for flat-tappet and roller engines alike. (Late-model owners should try Brad Penn’s FSGF synthetic, an API SN-level oil with excellent anti-wear properties and catalytic-converter/oxygen-sensor friendliness.)
3. Use an oil specifically for your engine type, like Driven Racing Oil’s LS30 synthetic for ’97-up LS-powered Corvettes. These high-tech mills have unique issues: lifters ticking during startup, PCV blow-by, roller-cam lobe wear, and lifter and bearing failure. Driven claims that LS30 provides optimum oil flow on startup, which eliminates lifter ticking. It also features a high-temp, high-shear blend that can withstand an LS’s high-temp, high-rpm environment. Its low volatility prevents PCV issues and oil consumption, and the high zinc content protects aggressive roller cams. LS30 can even keep the variable valve-timing system running smoothly in VVT engines like the ’14 Vette’s LT1. 3.
While new-vehicle owners can just take it easy for 500 miles then change the oil, engine builders must break in each new mill carefully. And break-in oils are carefully formulated with the right viscosity to seat the rings, as well as the right anti-wear additives that protect the cam and valvetrain, and minimize damaging metal particles created during break-in.
Flat-tappet-engine builders are typically conscientious about using a proper, high-ZDDP break-in oil like Brad Penn Grade 1 30-weight to protect internal components. However, some roller-motor owners mistakenly believe that their engines don’t need break-in oil. In reality, without a purpose-specific lubricant like Driven BR Break-In Oil, those roller mills will suffer the same particulate contamination—and potential bearing failures -that a flat-tappet engine would. So you ’87-up Corvette owners, take heed: If you’re rebuilding your roller Vette engine, break it in right!
Racing oils are different from street oils, because the engines and operating environments are different.
Modern street engines typically operate in low-rpm, low-load environments, and many are overhead-cam designs—all of which requires fewer anti-wear additives. A large emphasis is placed on emissions, so the engines use EGRs and other emissions equipment, and require additional detergents. And because of ever -increasing drain intervals, additional acid neutralizers are necessary.
Race engines operate in high-rpm, high-temp environments, and many use flat-tappet cams and pushrods -which need more anti-wear additives and friction modifiers. Emissions controls typically aren’t used, so there’s less need for detergents. Racing oils are generally lower in viscosity (though many are still multi-viscosity types, like street oils), but have zinc, phosphorus, and moly levels beneficial for anti-wear protection. However, they’re designed for low-mileage use, with drain intervals usually before 500 miles.
Mineral vs. Synthetic: Which is Better?
Ah, the age-old “Should I use synthetic or mineral oil?” question.
Mineral oils should be used in special situations: Driving an ancient car, breaking in a new engine because your builder says it seats the rings better, etc.
Outside of that, you should always use a high-quality synthetic or synthetic-blend oil in your Corvette. And it doesn’t matter if your ride used conventional oil until now; switching to synthetic won’t cause any problems.
Today, we’re fortunate to
enjoy the most advanced oil formulations ever made. Modern synthetics and
synthetic blends provide superior protection, even when extending drain
intervals to 7,500 miles in some GM vehicles.
They’re better at preventing engine wear, their purity and detergents keep the engine internals cleaner, and they control combustion- related acids better. They flow much faster in cold temps, and they don’t break down and form deposits in high-temp environments. They cool and seal better than ever before. Some have additive packages that can go 15,000 miles, and many even contribute to improved fuel economy. That, my friends, is called progress.
What used to be a hotly debated topic has turned into a no-brainer: Today’s synthetic oil technology makes it vastly superior to mineral oil, period. Back To Top^
Hyundai and its South Korean sibling, Kia, are recalling nearly 1.2 million cars and crossovers from the 2011 to 2014 model years. Documents from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration show that the engines in some of those vehicles may have an increased likelihood of stalling, which could dramatically increase the risk of accidents.
The engines suffer from two problems, both of which stem from flawed manufacturing processes. NHTSA's defect report on the Kia vehicles affected by the recall explains that after the engines' crankshafts were machined, their oil passages may not have been completely cleared of metallic debris. Complicating matters is that the engines' crankpins were manufactured with uneven surfaces.
Combined, the crankshaft debris and the roughness of the crankpins can keep oil from getting to an engine's connecting rod bearings, which can cause the bearings to wear out prematurely. That, in turn, can cause the bearings to fail, forcing the engine to stall.
The good news is that failure of the connecting rod bearings is rarely sudden, and drivers are almost always warned of the issue ahead of time by a very unusual banging noise coming from the engine compartment. (If you've ever had the experience, you know what we mean. It sounds a bit like a Terminator-sized Energizer bunny hopped up on triple espressos trying to break out of a prison cell.)
Also good news: while engine failures have been reported by owners, Kia has received no news of accidents or injuries linked to the problem. (Hyundai's documents haven't yet been published.)
The recall affects 572,000 Hyundais and 618,160 Kia vehicles registered in the U.S., including:
- 2013-2014 Hyundai Sonata
- 2013-2014 Hyundai Santa Fe Sport
- 2011-2014 Kia Optima
- 2012-2014 Kia Sorento
- 2011-2013 Kia Sportage
Hyundai owners should begin receiving recall notices in the mail around May 19. Kia owners can expect them a week or so later, around May 25. After receiving those notices, owners will be able to take their vehicles to their local dealerships, where mechanics will inspect the engine assembly and replace the affected parts, as necessary. The fix will be carried out at no charge to owners.
If you own one of these vehicles and have further questions, you're encouraged to call Hyundai customer service and ask about recall #162, or call Kia customer service and inquire about recall SC147. Back To Top^
Chrysler recalls 5.7-liter Hemis with MDS built between 2009 and 2012.
Owners of affected cars report that the timing chain on 5.7-liter Hemi cars fails suddenly and without warning, in most cases at highway speed and in four-cylinder fuel-saving mode. (Six-speed manual cars are not affected because they are not equipped with MDS, which is Chrysler’s patented cylinder deactivation technology.)
Now that Chrysler has taken ownership of the timing chain defect, the blaming of customers has finally subsided. Dealers are handling the recall by replacing specific engine equipment under Customer Satisfaction Notification P01. The affected parts include the timing chain, timing chain guide, timing chain tensioner and spring, pick-up tube and o-ring, heater tube o-rings, and timing cover gasket. A known fault in the oil-control valve assembly for which an updated part exists (earlier versions have a filter screen that comes loose) are not currently approved for upgrade/update as part of the recall.
Not all is going smoothly with the recall of the timing chain defect. If your timing chain fails before you get your Hemi to the service department for the recall work, the repair may be drawn out over a much longer period of time due to an obscure provision in the repair procedure that hopes to ignore certain laws of physics. (It boils down to dealers wanting to double-bill the factory for one operation and being able to get away with it, while the factory hedges its bet that no damage actually took place.)
Chrysler policy on failed engines is this: Technicians may perform only the recall service work to the timing chain—irrespective of whether or not the chain has broken. They are required to reassemble the car, attempt to start it, and then once engine damage is subsequently confirmed can the engine be torn down (again) for the far more significant mechanical damage to be repaired.
As the 5.7-liter Hemi is an “interference” engine by design, it’s inevitable that piston-to-valve damage will occur if any attempt is made to start the vehicle after the timing chain breaks. And here’s the irony: The service procedure is to crank the engine as the first step in the diagnostic process—an act that locks in the engine damage before the first wrench is turned.
There are some interesting consequences to the recall. First, it appears that owners who have made engine modifications and have also experienced failure from the timing chain defect are not being covered under the warranty or the recall, in spite of the fact that the MDS system—not aftermarket parts—are the culprit. The lesson here: do not modify your automatic-equipped 2009-’12 Hemi under any circumstances while under the 100,000-mile power train warranty.
The second interesting thing is that disabling the MDS fuel-saver mode with an aftermarket tune appears to prevent the timing chain failure from happening. That’s also ironic, because saving the engine from damage in effect voids the warranty. In fact, anything you do on your own to fix it while waiting for the recall notice will void the warranty.
If your car falls under the recall and you haven’t had the warranty work done yet, but you still need to drive your car, it may be best to drive the car in manual auto-stick mode, which forces the computer out of MDS fuel-saver operation and into V-8 mode. Dealerships are saying Hemi cars with snapped timing chains and broken valves are coming in faster than running cars with recall notices, which should give you an idea for the severity of the problem. No word yet if Chrysler is paying for damaged cars that subsequently get in an accident as a result of engine failure.
To find out if your Chrysler vehicle is part of this recall or any other, click HERE, then click on “Your Vehicle,” select “Recall Information” from the pull-down menu, then enter your VIN number. Back To Top^
QUALITY BRAKE REPAIR & SERVICE - LINDEN NJ
We offer quality automotive brake service, using the highest quality parts, at very reasonable and fair prices!
Honest, Quality, Reliable service, and we're very conveniently located across from the Linden NJ Train Station!
Call TODAY for an appointment - 908-862-9071
or Email us at: BrakeRepair@BSEAutomotive.com Back To Top^
Just a note on vehicles with security systems, where you need special key, which will only work with your car... MAKE SURE YOU HAVE A SPARE KEY! Keep an extra spare key (that you know works) in a safe dry place, away from heat, cell phones or magnetic fields (yes they are expensive, but can save a lot of grief). If you're having a problem with your security system, where your car won't start, and / or see a flashing green key light on your dash, a spare key will help rule out a faulty or corrupted key. Also if you lose your key, these keys are a lot more difficult to replace quickly. Most private mechanics do not have the specialized equipment necessary to reprogram your cars immobilization system. Back To Top^
Can you get a ticket in New Jersey for warming up your car?
Will the winter ritual of "warming up the car" in your driveway on a frigid morning land you in municipal court in New Jersey?
That question was posed after a Michigan driver received a summons for warming up his car in his driveway, which went viral after he took to social media to express anger over the ticket.
But the local Michigan law he was cited for violating and New Jersey's law are different and experts questioned if modern vehicles even need to warm-up for long periods of time.
Q: Is it really illegal to let your car warm up in your driveway when it's below 35 degrees?
A: The fast answer is no, under New Jersey environmental regulations that are intended to reduce air pollution and soot. But there are some conditions that vary depending on whether the vehicle is gas or diesel powered.
Here is what the state
Department of Environmental Protection says is permitted:
All vehicles may idle for three minutes, but gasoline-powered vehicles may not idle for longer than three minutes, said a DEP spokesman.
If a diesel powered vehicle has been shut-off for three or more hours and it is 25 degrees or colder out, that vehicle may idle for 15 minutes straight. Idling laws can be enforced on public and private property.
However, the law is laced with some common sense provisions. The three-minute limit on idling doesn't apply to vehicles stuck in traffic. It also doesn't apply to vehicles idling while being repaired or undergoing state or federal inspection.
"Naturally, we urge common sense in the enforcement of the provisions" Clearly, people need to run their cars to warm them up and to clear ice and snow."
Your chance of getting a
summons for idling too long is slim, based on traffic summons figures from the
state Judiciary. Drivers of passenger vehicles face a $100 fine and those
driving commercial vehicles face a $250 fine for a first offense.
In 2016, 288 summons were issued statewide, up from the 276 summons written in 2015, according to the state judiciary.
That decreased from the 439 summons issued in 2014, which was the highest number written in the five years. The fewest were the 170 tickets issued in 2012.
A vehicle left idling on private property is not immune from enforcement under the law.
"According to the law, an
officer can enter private property when he sees an engine idling longer than
provided (for) by law," said the New Jersey Traffic Officers Association
executive director and a retired police chief. "Police can enforce a violation
committed in their presence without a warrant."
Idling laws also can be enforced by the DEP and county health officers.
A reason for New Jersey's law is because the state doesn't meet federal clean air standards and vehicle pollution is a leading cause of lung disease and asthma, according to the DEP. In the case of the Michigan town, the anti-idling law was intended to deter the theft of a running vehicle.
That crime fighting rationale has been used in New Jersey for police issuing a summons and, in one case, taking the keys out of a running vehicle left in a convenience store parking lot.
Except for the creature comfort of a vehicle that's as warm-as-toast on a frigid day, AAA experts said there is no mechanical reason to let it run for longer than three minutes.
"The best way to warm a modern engine is to start it and allow it to idle for 15 to 30 seconds while you fasten your seat belt and check the mirrors." said a AAA Mid-Atlantic spokeswoman. "Naturally, a little longer idle time may be appropriate in the winter if you need to clear snow and ice from the windshield and other parts of the car. The three minutes permitted is more than enough time."
That gives oil and other lubricants enough time to coat moving parts in the engine and transmission, she said. Modern vehicles also warm-up faster and pollute less while being driven at reduced speeds for the first few miles before reaching operating temperature. Back To Top^
On November 2 at the SEMA Show in Las Vegas, NV, U.S. Marshals seized alleged counterfeit aftermarket automotive parts being displayed and sold by six Chinese vendors. The parts infringed on patents and trademarks on products sold by Jeep accessory manufacturer Omix-ADA, which worked directly with SEMA to shut down the alleged counterfeiters.
The raids brought fresh attention to a growing problem in the automotive aftermarket industry: counterfeit and knock-off products.
Although it was big news during the show, industry insiders say the issue of counterfeit parts is hardly breaking news. Following the raids at the SEMA Show, Omix-ADA released an official statement:
“The company views counterfeiting and infringement as a serious and widespread problem in the aftermarket industry and one that can be combated through proper legal channels, and would encourage other members of the aftermarket industry to follow a similar path.”
A Spokesperson for Aeromotive has also seen an increase in counterfeited products, stating:
“The counterfeit product issue is growing,” he said. “It’s not just growing in volume with certain components, it’s growing with more components.”
Counterfeit and knock-off are often used interchangeably; however, there’s a difference.
A knock-off part typically uses patented designs and technology, but usually stop short of using the original part’s name or logo. It is not sold as the original part.
Counterfeit products are usually passed off as the originals they copy, and are designed to intentionally confuse a customer.
The issue of counterfeit parts isn’t just about corporate patents and trademarks. Counterfeit parts can under-perform, wear out prematurely, and outright fail. It can become a financial and safety issue for consumers who purchase the wrong parts.
You can have problems with not just the product not functioning properly, but you can have a fire.
SEMA offered tips on how consumers can avoid counterfeit parts. The organization stressed the importance of purchasing only from reputable companies and authorized web retailers. SEMA has urged its member companies to provide a list of authorized dealers, but recommends buyers contact the manufacturer if there’s any doubt about the authenticity of a product.
Purchasing through reputed sales channels can reduce the risk of getting stuck with a counterfeit product,” a SEMA spokesperson said. “If the retailer is new or not well known, consumers should feel comfortable reaching out to the manufacturer to see whether their products are sold through that channel. It is better to take this step and confirm authenticity than to get stuck with a knock-off of inferior quality.”
Finally, compare prices before buying. If the price of a product is significantly lower through one distributor, you should be suspicious and do some further homework.
For its part, the aftermarket industry is also taking steps to make it harder for counterfeiters to succeed.
“SEMA encourages all our members to register their intellectual property with the appropriate government agencies,” SEMA said in an email statement. “New and useful inventions should be protected with patents. Brand names and logos should be registered as trademarks. When the company encounters a counterfeiting situation, it will be in a position to enforce its rights if it has taken these steps ahead of time.”
Many proactive companies have heeded that advice.
You can also look for legitimate aftermarket companies, like Omix-ADA, to aggressively enforce their rights. Although two companies were served subpoenas and shut down during the SEMA Show raid and four more companies received subpoenas and were shut down at the nearby AAPEX Show. Back To Top^
Do you have the transmission fluid periodically replaced in your car? If not, you should!
Some cars are more difficult than others to do this on, as they don't have dip sticks, and require special equipment to remove and replace the fluid with the correct amount
Transmission fluid doesn't need to be changed as often as engine oil, but should be done on a regular basis. Your owners manual should have information on when it should be done.
One important thing to remember is that not all cars take the same fluid. On a lot of models, it's imperative to use original equipment fluid (for that vehicle) to prevent expensive transmission issues in the future.
There are several different ways to service transmissions. One way is to hook up a special machine to the cooler lines that removes all the transmission fluid, and replaces it with new fluid. This method is commonly used in the above mentioned vehicles that don't have dip sticks for checking the fluid level. This method replaces all the fluid, but is usually the most expensive way.
Another method is to remove the pan if it has one, replace the transmission filter and pan gasket, and refill the transmission.
Another method (which I recommended) is just to remove the drain plug if available and drain and replace the fluid.
With the last two methods though, you're only changing about 2/3's - 3/4's of the fluid, as some fluid still remains in the torque converter, and can't be easily removed.
The reason I prefer the last method is because it seems to be the most common way to do it on most vehicles, since most have drain plugs. Usually the filters are nothing more than a screen, which shouldn't really need replacing, and you're not disturbing the factory seal on the pan gasket, if equipped, but lastly, it's so easy to do, it can be done every 10 - 15 thousand miles. If you're doing it this often, it not that important that you're not changing all the fluid, as the fluid will always be fresh. Keeping fresh fluid in your transmission will greatly extend it's life by removing contaminants from wear. Also transmissions work hydraulically, which means they have rubber seals, and pistons under great oil pressure to apply clutch packs and bands. These seals harden with heat. New transmission fluid helps keep these seals pliable, and helps keep them from hardening, preventing slippage, creating more heat and damaging the clutches. Back To Top^
According to the experts, car interiors are actually toxic all year round. However, there are two times when the chemicals are at their highest levels: when the car is brand new, and in the summer. It makes sense that freshly manufactured materials would still carry some residue from their production, and that compounds would get released as the car's parts start to get used (seats being sat in, dashboard controls being touched, carpet being rubbed). These chemicals are what cause the "new car smell" that some people love and others can't stand. Over time, the excess levels of chemicals start to wear off. They're still there, but they're being released in much lower doses. This process is called "off-gassing." That is, until the summer. When it gets hot outside, some of these toxic fumes start to get stirred up and released again. That's because exposure to heat speeds up off-gassing, and so does exposure to ultraviolet light from the sun's rays.
There are so many chemicals in an average car, causing such a variety of problems, that there's no point in listing them all. Some experts say there are around 275 possible contaminants, with about 50 being the most prevalent. They can be broadly categorized, though. Vinyl, the cheap plastic-like upholstery material, is one of the very worst. Other offenders are formaldehyde, a preservative; flame retardants, which help protect the cars' occupants from the heat of the engine bay and exhaust; heavy metals and various plastics, which make up components such as the dashboard, door handles and armrests. The mildest symptoms of inhaling these chemicals are nausea and headaches, which many people might not even think is related to their new car. Over time, though, the prolonged exposure can cause problems with the central nervous system, hormones, memory loss and cancer, among other scare factors. Back To Top^
Do Batteries Need Distilled Water?
Most batteries you see under the hoods of cars don't need water. Batteries these days are factory-sealed, so you never have to add anything to it.
Now, it may be that old-style batteries are more common in the RVs. And distilled water will never hurt, but even older batteries will do fine with tap water.
If you live in a part of the country that has excessively hard or alkaline water, you could consider using distilled water in the battery. Hard water contains lots of dissolved minerals, which I could shorten a battery's life. But I'm not even sure that could really matter.
Basically, if you ever need to add water to a battery, if distilled is easily available, use it, if not, don't sweat it! Back To Top^
There are a lot of things you can do to keep it at bay, though, and get your car through the coming winter unscathed
Now that manufacturers have outer body rust through warranties, you’d think that rust wasn’t a problem anymore, but just ask the owners of TJ-era Jeep Wranglers or the 150,000 2001 to 2004 Toyota Tacoma owners that had their trucks rust out from underneath them. Nissan Altima owners are also experiencing floors that completely rust out of the cars.
There are preventative measures you can take to slow the oxidation of even the most fragile cars and trucks.
Clean Your Drains: Every single car has drains in various locations. They’re designed to keep water from collecting in places that are prone to rust. When drain holes get plugged with leaves, dirt and pine needles, they do exactly the opposite of the job they’re supposed to do, to the point that you’ll start to hear water sloshing around inside of doors and fenders.
You’ll have to find the drains in your specific car, but they’re usually along the bottom of the doors, in the floors, at the bottoms of fenders, and in the tailgate.
Pay attention to the drains in your sunroof, too. They’re usually at the forward corners.
Wash Your Car: Automakers have made great strides in galvanizing sheet metal, but eventually dirt, mud, sand and salt will all conspire to wear away whatever protective finish is on your car. Your best defense is to keep the car clean.
We’re not suggesting you go outside and blast the car off with a hose in the middle of February. It’s uncomfortable, and frankly, with water restrictions the way they are now, it’s probably illegal in most communities.
There’s nothing wrong with a car wash, but we like the touch-free variety that use high-pressure water instead of cloth that can trap dirt and do more harm to the car’s finish than good.
Most decent car washes have an undercarriage wash as an option. For the extra two bucks, it’s well worth it to blast some warm water in the crevices of the car that you never see.
Try to hit the car wash once every couple of weeks, or after the roads have gone down to bare pavement. It will add decades to the life of your car.
Don’t Forget the Inside: On the inside, the moisture and salt you track inside the car can leach through the carpets and sound deadening material to rust out the floor from the inside. Invest in a decent set of rubber floor mats that protect the floors from all that water and sodium or calcium chloride, and vacuum the interior regularly to keep sand from working its way through the carpet to the steel floor below.
Oil Undercoating: There are still Vermont farmers driving around with trucks from the 1960s and 1970s that have survived decades of New England winters. It’s because they undercoat their trucks with oil. Old-timers would pressure-wash the underside of their trucks, fill up a Hudson sprayer with waste oil they’d drained out of their equipment the rest of the year, and coat the underbody with atomized oil, spraying inside doors, fenders and frame rails.
It’s the messiest job in the world, though, and probably not environmentally friendly. Smarter folks have been using bar and chain oil for chainsaws. It’s economical at about $5 a gallon, and it’s also got some adhesive properties so that it’ll stick to whatever you shoot it at, leaving behind a thin film of oil, rather than a drippy mess.
Waxoyl: Unlike oil that can be eventually washed away from some surfaces, Waxoyl is a wax product that hardens and adheres to the underbody. You can buy Waxoyl from some suppliers, but find a trained shop to apply it for you that has the applicator wands that reach deep inside door panels and frame rails and spray 360 degrees at the end to ensure maximum coverage. Back To Top^
Late model vehicles have many computerized systems; in most cases, each system is under the basic control of its own computer (module). There can be more than twenty modules on each vehicle and many of these modules have some sort of "learned" memory, which may be lost when the battery is disconnected. This can cause something minor, like the clock to lose its time, but it can also lead to engine stalling or even a failed smog inspection.
In order to avoid this issue, it has become more and more critical that power is supplied to the electrical system while the battery is disconnected, for any reason, including replacement.
Luckily, there are many "memory saving" devices available that can be connected to the cigarette lighter or the OBDII diagnostic connector. When used correctly, these devices can supply enough power to the modules while the battery is disconnected so they don't lose their memory.
Be sure to follow all manufacturer directions if you use any of these "memory saving" devices. Most of these devices use a small battery to supply power. Opening a door or turning the ignition on with the main battery disconnected can cause the battery in the device to lose power as well.
Examples of how different modules can be affected by loss of battery power:
*Door modules: Loss of express-up feature due to loss of stored "pinch point"
*Engine control module (ECM, PCM, VCM): Loss of learned idle speed which can cause a stalling
condition. Resetting of emission monitors can cause a smog inspection failure.
*Power seat modules: Loss of "learned" seat and mirror positions
*Radio: Loss of time, radio stations, and possible anti-theft lockout.
*Transmission control module: Loss of adaptive information; most late model transmissions "learn" how you drive and "learn" to shift accordingly.
If you're experiencing electrical issues immediately after a battery replacement or disconnect, make sure the battery cables were reattached and tightened down properly. Herculean strength isn't necessary, but the cables should be snug and not move around or come off of the battery posts. You can also check your owner’s manual for any procedures or drive cycles you can perform to "teach" the car functions it may have lost while the battery was disconnected. If both of those are performed and you're still experiencing issues, your car may require a *special computer to re-initialize the modules that lost memory. *Some cars require the computer to be "flashed" or reprogrammed so that the charging system recognizes the new battery, and doesn't over charge it, since it learned over time to compensate for the weaker battery.
In general, it’s not uncommon for late model vehicles to stall after the battery has gone dead or has been disconnected and as we just learned from my friend last Saturday, with a no start your first step should be to make sure those terminals are clean, attached, and tightened!
Another tried-and-tested solution to a no start includes using your car’s spare key to start the car. If this does happen to work, you should take your car back to the dealership and have them reprogram your normal key.
If none of these work and your car still isn’t starting, it could come down underlying issues with your vehicle’s starter, ignition switch, immobilizer system, or the neutral safety switch.
The engine computer has a basic idle speed control setting for when the engine is new. As you drive the car, deposits build up on the throttle body, which restricts the air-flow and reduces the idle speed. The engine control computer compensates for this by opening the idle air bypass valve to achieve the correct idle speed. The computer stores this new bypass valve position in its memory. Over time, this can become a fairly substantial adjustment, but the change occurs so gradually, you will never notice it happening.
Unfortunately, when the battery is disconnected, some late model vehicles will lose this learned idle position, which will cause the vehicle to stall.
Clean the deposits built up on the throttle body (Throttle Body Service) using aerosol brake cleaner and a shop towel. This will allow the default idle air bypass valve value to function correctly. The idle learn procedure will begin again as it did when the vehicle was new. Some basic repair knowledge may be necessary to complete this procedure.
You can also perform the following procedure to try to force the engine computer to quickly relearn the necessary bypass valve position when stalling occurs:
Warm the engine, but hold your foot on the throttle as necessary to keep the engine running.
With the transmission in Park, slowly release the throttle so that the engine will idle on its own. You may have to work at this a bit.
Let the engine idle on its own for about one minute.
Continue to let the engine idle and with your foot on the brake, place the transmission in Drive and let the engine idle for another minute.
Continue to let the engine idle with your foot on the brake and the transmission in Drive. Turn the A/C on and let the engine idle for another minute with the A/C compressor running.
Turn the ignition off and wait a minute. Back To Top^
There are some strange laws in this country when it comes to motor vehicles. Some are well-intentioned but fail, other are just outdated:
Alabama – There’s no mention as to where this law originated, but in Alabama it’s illegal to drive a car while blindfolded. Thank goodness one state had the foresight to get that law on the books.
Alaska – It’s illegal to tie a dog to your car roof, but there’s no mention of the hood or the trunk lid, or of cats, weasels, lizards or any other household pet.
Arkansas – Don’t drive over to the Sonic late at night and try and get the waitress’s attention by honking your car horn, because in Little Rock it’s against the law to do so anywhere that serves cold drinks or sandwiches after 9 p.m.
California – Ancient, but still on the books: It’s against the law for women to drive in a housecoat, it’s illegal in Eureka to use the road as a bed, while in Glendale, it’s illegal to jump from a car going over 65 mph. 64 mph is so much safer.
Colorado – It’s illegal to drive a black car on a Sunday in Denver.
Connecticut – it’s illegal to hunt from a car, even if it’s painted orange.
Delaware – “R” rated movies shall not be shown at drive-in theaters.
Florida – By law, you must feed the parking meter if you tie an elephant, goat or alligator to it. Of course, if you tie the goat and the alligator to the meter at the same time, you may return to find the goat missing.
Georgia – As you’re driving through Marietta, keep an eye on what type of vehicle that you’re following. You see, It’s illegal to spit from a car or bus, but there’s no law prohibiting spitting from a truck. There’s no driving through playgrounds in Georgia, but it is kind of fun.
Hawaii – Hawaiians must believe that any hazard must be stationary because it’s against the law for any vehicle in motion to use its hazard lights.
Idaho – Clearly there’s an impression in the City of Idaho Falls that Senior Citizens over the age of 88 must lose all sense of balance, as it’s forbidden for them to ride a motorcycle in that town. And over in Coeur d’Alene, police officers must honk their horn or flash their lights and wait at least three minutes before breaking up any romantic car-based goings-on.
Kansas – You can’t transport dead poultry in parts of Topeka, which has to make you wonder what goes on in the back of a KFC. Thirty days in jail provide a deterrent to any tire screachers in Derby, Kansas.
Kentucky – It’s illegal for your pet to molest a vehicle in Fort Thomas. Exactly what’s meant by “molest” is not outlined, so we’ll have to leave it to our imaginations.
Louisiana – Another leftover from a by-gone area that needs to come of the books: a woman’s husband is required by law to walk in front of the car waving a flag as she drives it.
Maine – It’s illegal to buy a car on a Sunday. Maybe they should hook-up with Indiana and create a Saturday “Powerball” kind of car sale.
Maryland – While driving through Rockville, it’s best to keep your windows up and your mouth shut. It’s a misdemeanor to swear from a vehicle in that city.
Massachusetts – You cannot drive with a gorilla in your backseat. Apparently they’re okay in the front, except for their bad habit of constantly changing the radio stations.
Michigan – It’s against the law to sit in the middle of the street and read a newspaper. Kindles and iPads have avoided the law through a technological loophole.
Minnesota – You can be charged as a public nuisance if your truck in that leaves mud, dirt or sticky substances on the road in Minnetonka. You’d think a place with Tonka in its would be more truck-friendly.
Mississippi – In Oxford, it’s illegal to honk your horn because it might scare nearby horses, not to mention wake the blacksmith, the chimney sweep, and the steeplejack.
Missouri – You can’t honk someone else’s car horn in University City, Missouri, which just seems like some decency to me.
Montana – You can’t drive a herd of livestock numbering more than 10 on an interstate highway (!) unless the livestock is preceded and followed by flagmen escorts for the purpose of warning other highway users.
Nebraska – By law, drivers on mountains should drive with caution near the right edge of the highway, even though there are no mountains in Nebraska. I figure this is one of those “just in case” laws should a 1,400 foot volcano grow out of a cornfield like one did in Mexico.
Nevada – It’s illegal to ride a camel on the highway. Of course it is.
New Hampshire – It’s against the law to inhale bus fumes with the intent of inducing euphoria, If you’ve ever lived in New Hampshire, you’d understand.
New Jersey – If you have been convicted of driving while intoxicated, you may never again apply for personalized license plates. Maybe assigning them the license plate “Drunk Driver” might be more effective.
New Mexico – It’s illegal for cab drivers to reach out and pull potential customers into their taxis. At least for the time being, Uber drivers are exempt.
New York – It’s against the law to disrobe in your car in the beach town of Sag Harbor, Long Island.
North Carolina – In Dunn, North Carolina, they have it all covered. It’s illegal to play in traffic, drive on the sidewalk, or drive through a cemetery. Apparently streets are still okay, though.
North Dakota – It’s more about what’s not illegal here: Drivers can use a hand-held cell phone while driving, there’s no law covering drug-impaired driving, no motorcycle helmet law or rear seat belt law for adults,
Ohio – It’s illegal to run out of gas in Youngstown. Also, Roller-skaters and cars cannot share the road in Canton, Ohio. Who has right-of-way is not clear.
Oklahoma – It’s illegal to read a comic book while driving. There’s no mention in the law about graphic novels.
Oregon – By law, you must yield to pedestrians when driving on the sidewalk. After all, it’s their tax dollars that paid for the sidewalk. Do not leave your car door open longer than necessary and don’t use your car to prove physical endurance on an Oregon road, as they are both frowned upon and illegal.
Pennsylvania –When driving on a country road at night, you must stop every mile and set off flares or other warning signals and then allow 10 minutes for livestock to clear the road
Rhode Island – It’s illegal to ride a horse on a highway for the purpose of racing or testing the speed of the horse. Apparently all other uses of a horse on the road is a-okay.
South Carolina – It’s unlawful to store trash in your vehicle in Hilton Head. Why? Rats. Aren’t you sorry you asked?
South Dakota – You only need to be 14 years old to get your license in South Dakota.
Tennessee – It’s illegal to shoot any game other than whales from a moving vehicle. That explains why the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga just installed bullet-proof glass.
Texas – You must have windshield wipers to register a car, although having a windshield is optional.
Utah – By law, birds have the right of way on all highways. After all, it’s their tax money that pays for the highways.
Vermont – It’s illegal for cars to backfire in Rutland. It might wake someone up.
Virginia – Women are prohibited from driving a car on Main Street unless her husband is walking in front of the car waving a red flag
Washington – A motorist with criminal intentions must stop at the city limits and telephone the chief of police as he is entering the town. But if the caller is a criminal, how can they trust what they tell the cops?
West Virginia - It’s legal to eat road kill. Yep, just disgusting.
Wisconsin – It’s against the law for a person to ride a bicycle with their hands off the handlebars. Clearly an effort to crackdown on bicycle riding scofflaws.
Wyoming – If you open a gate over a road, river, stream or ditch, you’d better close it behind you or risk a $750 fine. Back To Top^
Your tires play a vital role in giving you a safe and smooth ride, helping you stop quickly and letting you steer accurately. Visually checking your tires for uneven tire wear on a regular basis will alert you to problems that could result in an accident-causing blowout.
Irregular tire wear, either across the tire tread or around the circumference of the tire, is an indication that there may a problem that needs to be fixed.
Worn out suspension parts: Worn out and loose suspension parts, like inner and outer tie rod ends, and ball joints, bushings are not only causes of improper tire wear, but are also extremely dangerous, and can cause you to loose control of your car if they should break. It's also important to use high quality parts for the same reason. Shocks and struts that aren't working properly can also cause premature tire wear, as well as premature wear of the above components.
There’s been a lot of talk lately about the efforts being made by new car dealers to capture a greater share of the repair and service market. It’s no secret that with new car price margins slipping and fierce competition, the service department must now contribute a greater share of the profits for the dealership to survive. This means that new car dealers will put a lot of their advertising dollars targeting customers that traditionally went to independent repair shops. And they will largely compete on price. And while the financial meltdown a few years back caused a ton of dealers to go under, make no mistake. The dealers that are left are a lot stronger. And many of them “get it” in terms of customer service and of course, price.
In addition to the new car dealer, independents see competition from all sectors of the industry. Years back, there were muffler shops, transmission shops, brake shops, tire stores and tune-up shops. Today, every sector of the auto service and repair industry is a total car care facility. Everyone now wants to copy the business model of the independent repair shop.
The majority of independent repair shops do not have a nationally branded logo on their buildings. They cannot compete head to head and offer all the amenities that may be found at a new car dealer or national chain store. Independents don’t have the financial means to advertise to masses of people and their market reach is usually within a radius of no more than 5–10 miles. Yet, year after year, every survey indicates that the independent repair shop is the preferred choice of the motoring public.
Independent repair shops will continue to have the edge because they have something unique that sets them apart: the shop owner’s culture and mindset. Shop owners simply have what money cannot buy. They have passion for what they do, they establish strong roots in the community and they take care of their customers as if they were taking care of family. Shop owners are also in the trenches every day, ensuring that their culture and legacy is never compromised.
Business is business, and the motoring public is fair game. There will no doubt be winners and losers as the entire repair and service industry continues to compete for their share of the market. But, while the big guys compete on price and fringe benefits, the independent repair shops will do what they have always done: dedicate their lives to ensure that each and every customer is taken care of as if they were family. Back To Top^
New safety technologies can reduce accident rates, but your insurance costs may be going up, not down, because of them.
Although it would seem intuitive that the $1,695 EyeSight active safety package on a new Subaru Forester would save a customer money on their auto insurance, it may not.
The Subaru system includes Forward Collision Prevention and Emergency Auto-Braking. These systems were proven in a study by IIHS to reduce the chances one will be in an accident, and logic follows, that will save money on repairs and medical bills overall.
Yet in some states, a new Subaru owner who buys this expensive technology may not enjoy any savings on their auto insurance. In fact, pricey safety systems may be causing insurance rates to climb due to the high cost to repair and service the high-tech systems. Back To Top^
IS THE SEDAN A DYING BREED?
Meanwhile, the small SUV has picked up the slack, growing from 10 percent of the market to 14 percent over the same period. The reported causes seem pretty obvious. Historically low gas prices are back, but the retrograde notion that all SUVs drive and perform like trucks is fading. Also pushing the shift: Higher ride heights give drivers more confidence on the road; bigger vehicles offer more storage space and a greater feeling of safety; and more-efficient powertrains have reduced the mpg delta between cars and SUVs, even if gas prices aren’t the overwhelming consideration they were three years ago.
There’s something else at play, though. The nascent aspect of the crossover gives designers more leeway to experiment. The mini-crossover segment, for example, is a riot of forms and styles and expressions of brand cues. The Jeep Renegade has little in common stylistically with the Honda HR-V, lashed together in the same segment. They are for different people.
Conversely, the Chevrolet Cruze, looks conventionally similar to the Hyundai Elantra. They’re all the same loaves of bread. And it’s hardly better in the mid-size-sedan class.
The competition has been so fierce in sedan segments as to make all regress toward the mean—similar interior options, similar performance, similar trunk space, similarly sober styles. The last big innovation in mid-size sedans was the “coupe-like” roof of the 2011 Hyundai Sonata. Now most mid-sizers have extended rooflines.
The sedan may be benchmarking itself out of existence. Add in the social aspect—i.e., the sedan is the car your dad drove—and the call of the crossover seems seductive. But the benefits of the sedan are many, and many of them are dynamic. Let’s not let the sedan be the new minivan. Back To Top^
Does your car need regular fuel or premium? Gas or diesel?
The results vary wildly from case to case, but you need to be careful about what kind of fuel you put in your car and be aware of what effects your actions might have. Putting the wrong fuel in your car is a surprisingly common mistake.
Due to the different types of nozzles used for gas and diesel fuel at stations, its usually kind of difficult to mix them up, but mistakes do happen. If you realized your mistake (diesel in a gas car), the important thing is to stop driving the car. Parking and turning off the engine will limit the damage that will occur. Otherwise, the car will use up the remainder of the gas in the tank and eventually shut down, since gas engines can’t combust diesel.
What you need to do is drain the tank and fuel lines, fuel rails and injectors of the diesel fuel. You can try to do this yourself, but a mechanic will be better suited to handle this kind of work. Usually, there’s no permanent damage.
Going the other way around is far more harmful and dangerous for your car. Diesel is not only a fuel, but serves as a lubricant as well, so you can really damage the fuel-injector pump by using gasoline instead of diesel.
That’s not the only thing that can go wrong. Diesel and gasoline have different combustion properties, meaning that gas would detonate much earlier in a diesel engine. As a result, you’ll get misfires and knocking that will require certain parts of the engine to be repaired, rebuilt or replaced, which will be expensive.
If you discovered that you accidentally put diesel into your gas-powered car, you need to stop running the engine immediately and get a tow to a mechanic.
Some pumps are labeled as E85. E85 is a fuel that has a much higher blend of ethanol. Some cars, labeled as flex-fuel vehicles or FFV can switch between E85 and normal pump gas without any issues, but if you accidentally fill your non-FFV car with E85, you may notice some issues.
For starters, you’d at least get a check engine light, but you can top off the rest of your tank with regular gas and ride it out. “One time misfueling should not cause any long-term damage. Even that light will cycle off once the fuel mixture issue has been resolved. Accidentally fueling with extra ethanol is not like a diesel misfueling that automatically shuts down the vehicle, requires service and expensive maintenance. Consumers are usually able to navigate the issue with little issue.
So if you’ve accidentally put E85 into your gas car, top it up with regular gas a few times and ride it out.
Some people think that using Premium in a vehicle that doesn’t need it will turn their car into an asphalt-eating monster. Sorry, but nothing significant will happen. In some cases, like while towing or in hot, dry weather you might see a slight benefit, but due to the engine computers adjusting their timing automatically to compensate for the increased octane levels, no damage or noticeable benefits will occur.
On the other hand, using lower octane fuel in a car that calls for premium can cause some serious internal damage. You’ll likely notice the spark knock, which is best described as a sort of a high-pitched pinging or rattling noise. Fortunately, the engine computers can adjust timing to limit the amount of damage caused, but you’ll definitely notice reduced performance and worse fuel economy. Switch back to premium fuel as soon as you can, because all that spark knock can cause long-term damage. Back To Top^
When the light comes on, one or more diagnostic trouble codes (DTC) are stored in the engine control module. These DTCs remain even if the light goes out. To address a Check Engine Light problem, the DTCs are retrieved and the appropriate troubleshooting information is followed in order to determine the problem.
Every vehicle manufactured in the U.S. has to first pass an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test called the Federal Test Procedure. This sets the acceptable limits of wear and/or failure for the emission control system—i.e., what conditions will ultimately cause a Check Engine Light to illuminate. These standards are closely regulated. If the emission control system is faulty and the vehicle is polluting the air, the Check Engine Light illuminates to alert the driver of this condition. (Note: A vehicle in this condition would fail an emissions inspection or smog check.)
Don't confuse the Check Engine Light with the maintenance or service light. These lights illuminate when a routine service is due. They are usually triggered by mileage, gallons of gasoline consumed, or some other type of vehicle-use measurement.
The Check Engine
Light is blinking or flickers.
If the Check Engine Light comes on in the city but goes off on the freeway, then the fault is present during city driving conditions. Pay attention to whether or not the vehicle runs or drives any differently when the Check Engine Light illuminates. If vehicle performance does change, drive the car as little as possible and take it to be checked by a service professional as soon as possible. If there is no change in vehicle performance, you can drive home, but have it inspected as soon as possible. In this condition, you run a risk of the vehicle dying or not starting.
The Check Engine
Light comes on and stays on.
If the Check Engine Light illuminates constantly during driving with no noticeable driving or performance problems, there is a permanent fault in the emission control system. When this happens, the computer that controls the emission system usually has a backup program that runs while the fault is present. (These backup programs are often referred to as "limp home" mode programs.) You should get the vehicle serviced as soon as possible, but in most cases, the vehicle will continue to operate, though you run a risk of it dying or not starting.
The Check Engine
Light illuminates, stays on, and there are performance problems.
This means that a vital component of your emission control and engine management system has a serious problem. It usually involves a component or system needed for the vehicle to run at all. In most cases, drive the vehicle as little as possible. In many cases, the vehicle is not safe to drive at all—it could stop or stall out at any moment. It is best to pull over to a safe place and have the vehicle towed to an automotive diagnostician for a thorough inspection and repair.
The Check Engine
Light light comes on and blinks in a steady pattern while driving.
Don't confuse this steady pulsing of the Check Engine Light light (usually one or more flashes per second) with a flicker (see above). The Check Engine Light may stay on steadily or it may flash when the vehicle is accelerated. This is very serious. There is a severe failure of the emission control system that is causing the engine to misfire to the point that the catalytic converter is damaged each time the Check Engine Light flashes. It may mean that the catalytic converter is overheating to the point that it will glow red or, in extreme cases, start a fire on the underside of the vehicle. Immediately pull over to a safe place and have your vehicle towed to an automotive diagnostician for repair. Vehicles can be severely damaged and even destroyed by fire if this condition is ignored for too long. Back To Top^
Cars are pretty good today... They're built pretty well, are very reliable, and don't break down as much as they used to. Unfortunately, it seems that this causes people not to give much thought to basic car maintenance. Oil still needs to be changed, transmission fluid, air filters, tired need rotating, brakes wear out, and even suspension and steering gear need to be checked from time to time. Just because a car doesn't need a tune up for 100K miles doesn't mean it's a "drive and forget" till a dash light come on... Back To Top^
Knocking. It’s the very last thing that any car owner wants to hear coming from under the hood of their new sports car. As most of you may know, engine knock is just another way of saying pre-ignition, which is when the gasoline in your engine explodes before the intended ignition time. Not only does this sap the car of power but it can be extremely damaging to an engine. Luckily most cars today have sensors which and help reduce this as it happens.
Engineers design engines to work under certain parameters and deviating can cause damage. To understand what causes pre-ignition, we first have to look at the environmental factors that exist within an engine that makes the fuel/air mixture explode. Obviously the spark plug is the main catalyst, but the high pressure and heat helps. That’s why engines that place the fuel/air mixture under high pressure, such as those with forced induction or high compression ratios, are more prone to experiencing knock. That’s where octane comes into play. Contrary to popular belief, getting fuel with a higher octane rating does nothing to make your car faster. Instead, it actually makes it harder for the gasoline to explode, which in turn prevents knock.
The association between high octane and fast cars was made because most high performance machines have engines that are under a lot of stress. To prevent pre-ignition, a fuel with a higher octane rating is required. Back in the day, putting a low-octane fuel into a high performance engine with high octane needs was a recipe for engine knock, but most modern cars have computers to make them idiot proof. For example, if the owner of a McLaren 650S puts a low octane gas into their turbocharged machine, the computer will sense that and change ignition timing accordingly. This means that the engine is preserved but horsepower is lost until that tank of gas is used up and the proper fuel is put in. In this sense, yes, high-octane fuel will make a fast car faster.
Thing is, this is only because the motor is not holding itself back. On the other hand, putting high-octane fuel into a car that doesn’t require it will do nothing to increase the amount of horsepower being sent out of the crankshaft. Nowadays, it seems like more cars are getting their once unburdened engines replaced with motors that are smaller and produce more horsepower. This downsizing trend helps fuel economy, but given the knack for these engines to be turbocharged, they aren’t exactly saving consumers much money on fuel. The reason for this is that they require premium fuel to keep things under control with the added pressure from the turbochargers, and premium fuel is expensive.
In 1996, only 20% of cars required premium fuel but today, that number has risen to 50%. True to the market, the price of premium fuel has risen as well. In 1995, the price premium for high-octane gas was 18-19 cents per gallon more than standard fuel. The gap remained that way all the way until 2005, but subsequent years saw a leap in price. In 2011, the gap had risen to 25 cents over standard gasoline and now in 2016, it has risen to an average price difference of 47 cents. The reason behind this isn’t necessarily that gas stations want to reap the benefits of seeing more cars on the road that require better fuel, although marketing high octane fuel as better is partially to blame.
Instead, the issue is that production is still skewed towards churning out more low octane fuel, driving prices for high-octane gas even higher. As it turns out, many gas stations are actually losing money by paying as much as $1 extra per gallon for premium fuel while keeping their prices at the average 47 cent price hike. For the time being, things are likely to get worse as more forced induction engines, like Volkswagen’s insanely boosted 450 horsepower 2.0-liter four-cylinder, make their way onto roads worldwide. The shortage will cause a hike in price temporarily, but it won't last. Gas companies aren’t stupid, so once demand us high enough, high-octane fuel production will begin to catch up. Back To Top^
10 TOP STATES FOR HAIL DAMAGE
Hail. It’s not just small pebbles of ice falling from the sky. No, hail can cause immense damage to homes, businesses, and of course, cars and trucks. But how bad is the damage, really? Well, to give you an idea, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is reporting that bigger-than-baseball-size hail, exactly what struck Texas a few weeks ago and which shattered windows, busted the roofs, and dinged the bodies of many vehicles, causes millions in insurance payouts.
This updated report claims that “2011 and 2014 were the costliest years for hail-related claims in the US during the 2008-14 study period.” All told, total payouts for that period amounted to an estimated $7.26 billion. In 2011 the total amount in payouts was $948.3 million, while in 2014 that figure rose $968.9 million. According to IIHS, "the analysis excluded any hail storms that accompanied tornadoes, since it isn’t possible using the Highway Loss Data Institute’s (HLDI) data to determine which weather event caused the damage that led to the claim. Motorcycle claims were also excluded." A total of 31 insurance companies contributed data to the study.
What's more, those companies’ exposure represents 87 percent of the comprehensive coverage in HLDI’s database. But which US states had the highest hail-claim frequencies? Check out the data below and be sure to read the full report about the high cost of hail.
1. South Dakota
10. Texas Back To Top^
10 basic points to
think of when dealing with your mechanic:
1) Clean out your car- Mechanics have to get used to working in cramped spaces, which can be difficult and frustrating. If you're a slob who doesn't bother to clean out their car, you're only complicating the situation for your mechanic. Your mechanic shouldn't have to move 14 empty Red Bull cans to get under your dashboard. Plus it's just gross.
2) Don't try to watch them work on your car - You wouldn't want someone standing over your shoulder while you prepare the week's TPS reports, would you? Give your mechanic the space to properly perform their job. No one wants to be scrutinized while they work, especially when it's work that can oftentimes be frustrating by itself. Unless you're an apprentice, don't try to watch.
3) Don't automatically distrust - A segment of dishonest mechanics gives the entire industry a bad reputation. But don't let the bad apples taint your perception of everyone. Trust the person you're doing business with until you can't. Afford them the same respect as you would to anyone in a similar profession, they just want the opportunity to prove you right.
4) Share your positive experiences - When a mechanic has done a great job for you, let everyone know. Submit a review on the appropriate sites, recommend your friends and family, and let the management of the shop know how satisfied you are. The industry isn't used to customers sharing their success stories, since the negative experiences tend to take center stage.
5) If you don't understand how to do car repairs, don't try to do them yourself - Saving a buck is always good, but you need to know what you don't know. If you have no automotive experience and aren't very handy, don't try to repair your own transmission. Mechanics frequently deal with people who have tried to fix problems themselves, and only made them worse. This goes for friends who claim to know how to work on cars as well.
6) Understand that it's a business - For some reason, there are customers who assume that mechanics should do work for free, ignoring the fact that if they do, they won't be able to pay their own bills. Shop overhead isn't cheap. Automotive repair is a business, and while some shops offer free diagnoses, and other excellent discounts, it's important to remember that you're exchanging money for services, and that you need to respect that dynamic.
7) Tell them the symptoms, not the diagnosis - When bringing your car in after it's started having problems, let your mechanic know the car's symptoms. What is the car doing? Don't tell them what you want them to replace, unless you're willing to accept full responsibility in the case that you're wrong. A properly trained mechanic will not only be able to determine what is causing your car's issues, they will also point out other problems you may not have noticed.
8) Don't get mad if they have to adjust your seat - It can be annoying when you get your car back after it's been worked on and the seat has been moved, but different people are different sizes. In order to drive your vehicle into the bay, a mechanic may need to adjust your seat, and unless he or she is able to mark exactly where your seat was before it was moved, which is an absurd expectation, they will leave the seat in the last position. This is a crazy thing to complain about.
9) Take care of your car - A well-maintained car is much easier to work on for a mechanic, and much cheaper for you. A car that has been neglected and abused is much more difficult to work on, since the problems are more extensive and entrenched. It's like going to the doctor after you've been eating only sticks of butter for 10 years, the problems are harder and more difficult to fix.
10) Come back - If everything has been done properly and you've been treated well and charged a fair price, there is no bigger compliment you can give your mechanic and shop than repeat business. This is also the best way to build and foster a relationship with a mechanic that you can trust for years, which is more valuable than most people realize. Back To Top^
Tips on fixing a rock chip:
First, get touch-up paint at your local car dealership using your vehicle's VIN, which will cost roughly $15-20 for a tube of touch-up. Next, clean the rock chip with rubbing alcohol or another wax remover to ensure the best possible bond between the paint and the bare metal. While you let the chip air dry after cleaning, take out the paint bottle and give it a good shake for 10-15 seconds for even pigment distribution. Then, unscrew the paint brush from the bottle, and disperse one drop into the reservoir of the fine painting pen. Close the paint bottle for now, then lightly tap the pen to help the paint fall into the tube. You'll notice the touch-up will not drip out of the tiny tube without it being placed in the chip during use. Next, fill the chip up with thin layers of paint, allowing each coat to dry for a few minutes before adding another if necessary. The goal is to fill the chip up slowly, and allow time for shrinkage as it dries.
Now that the chip is slightly overfull to allow for shrinkage, clean the pen by pouring rubbing alcohol in the reservoir and using the supplied pipe cleaner to push the alcohol through. This may need to be done a few times, especially if you're changing colors from car to car. Although some paints are pre-mixed with clear coat type protection, if you decide to add it separately, repeat the same process, but add a clear coat to the remaining 20% of the chip, and slightly overfill it once again to allow for shrinkage.
Once the paint chip is protected and fully cured overnight, be sure to add your favorite wax or sealant to help repel water and minimize the chances of seeing rust down the road. The size and depth of the chip will dictate the amount of paint used, and the time required for the job. But remember, this is considered a band-aid in hopes of protecting your paint from future rust, and if done correctly, can also help hide those unsightly rock chips. Back To Top^
Uber is having a hard time finding enough people with cars willing to work for them.
To solve that problem, the company has raised $1 billion to start Xchange Leasing, a sub-prime lender with the sole purpose of getting poor people into new cars so they can drive for the ride-hailing service.
If you've got a license and are willing to drive, Uber will hook you up with a new car, no matter how bad your credit. To make sure you make your payments, though, Uber will automatically deduct them weekly from what you earn as a driver. If you don't drive enough, or you fail to make your lease payment, Xchange has folks to take the car back.
As for the terms, well, here's what Mark Williams, a lecturer at Boston University's business school told Bloomberg News: "The terms, the way they're proposed, are predatory and are very much driven toward profiting off drivers."
Uber, which is now valued at $62.5 billion, can only make money if tens of thousands of people sign up as drivers. That's because 50 percent of Uber drivers quit after just six months.
Xchange wants to address that by striking deals with automakers and Wall Street backers to lease 100,000 cars to new Uber drivers. Uber says they are providing a pathway for poor people to buy a new car.
Unfortunately, Xchange Leasing sounds more like a payday-loan racket built into a company store. The lease increases the company's control over the driver, who Uber still insists is nothing more than an "independent" contractor.
How is someone independent when Uber controls access to customers, sets the billing rates, demands a minimum number of hours and owns the car and the predatory lease on it?
Some amoral, Ayn Rand-loving sociopaths in Silicon Valley will insist that drivers should know what they are doing when they sign up. After all, the terms of service are sufficiently explanatory.
But here's the truth about human beings: not all of us are equally-well educated, and not everyone understands lease terms. We know from exploitative lending practices throughout history that poor people are the most likely to be suckered, often because they are so desperate to escape poverty that they will try almost anything.
Uber initially claimed to be part of the "sharing" economy, a marketing term that masks the unsavory nature of these exploitative business plans. But as we learn more about what companies like Uber must do to enrich the venture capitalists who back them, it becomes clear that old-fashioned exploitation of the desperate is at the heart of the enterprise.
Companies can throw around words like innovation all they want, but if recruitment means taking advantage of the desperate, then there's something wrong. Sometimes people forget that not everything that is shiny and new is necessarily good. Back To Top^
Buying a brand new
car is an exciting experience. Most buyers go in with the expectation that the
car is fresh off the factory line, but that may not always be the case. New cars
can get damaged in transit or on the dealer lot, and in many cases the dealer is
not required to tell you if any repairs have been completed.
The manufacturer tries its best to get a new car to its intended buyer in perfect condition, but there are many opportunities along the way for damage. The cars are usually loaded up on a transport trailer to go to their next destination. If the cars are sold in the same country, they may only use over-the-road transport, but if they need to travel an ocean they are loaded into containers or into a transport vessel.
Once a car reaches
its intended port, it is moved across the port to be loaded onto a truck and
transported to a dealer lot. All of these steps have potential for damage, which
can be inflicted from loading and unloading or even a third party. If the issues
are minor, the cars can be pulled off to the side and repaired once they arrive
at port and then sent along to the dealer.
After reaching the dealer lot, there are opportunities for the cars to be damaged from being moved around the lot or from other cars that are driven around them. If a car gets damaged on the dealer lot, it is usually repaired and can still be sold as new. The dealer that completed the repair is not required to disclose that repairs have been completed if the amount of damage falls below a certain threshold.
Most states set a threshold of three to six percent of the MSRP as the required amount for disclosure to a buyer. California seems to be one of the more consumer-friendly states in this regard, as it sets the threshold at only three percent, while states like Georgia set a separate limit of $500 for repainting alongside a five-percent disclosure limit. In most cases, dealers will disclose any damage that seems significant but many times they will just stick the car on the lot without any warning.
The best way to protect yourself is to carefully inspect your potential new car for any damage and explicitly ask the dealer if any repairs or touch-ups have been completed. Some states require the dealer to disclose repairs of any amount the customer asks, so it is a good idea to always pose the question.
It’s a common rule that cars should run smoothly on a flat road, at any speed. However, if you’ve owned a car long enough, chances are great that your vehicle has developed some vibration issues. It’s one of those annoying car problems that tend to start out quietly and gradually, and are subtle enough for you to miss noticing them, or ignore them.
Don’t underestimate the issue, however. As with any wear-and-tear car problem, it’s highly likely that the shaking and wobbling will progress over time. Before you even know it, you just might find yourself driving on a beautiful sunny day, with a nice road ahead of you – realizing suddenly that your car sounds like it’s going to fall apart at any minute.
Do not wait for this to happen, because you will have to cash out for costly repairs if you don’t address the issue.
Diagnosing and discovering the cause of car trouble is already half the job done. If your car is starting to shake and show its age, you might want to check out our top five common culprits behind your car’s vibration, and learn how to troubleshoot the problem before it’s too late.
Tires are one of the most common causes of car vibrations. One of the possible issues you might be dealing with in this context are out-of-balance tires. Your problems won’t be noticeable at slow speeds, but the shaking will intensify as you accelerate to 55-60 miles per hour. The steering wheel, or even the entire car, will start to vibrate. The tires will also wear in a distinctive way, so check whether any flat spots have developed around the tire. If the damage is too big, you might have to replace the tire. If not, having the tire rebalanced should do the trick.
If your car has larger tires, similar symptoms can actually signal that they are underinflated. Fix the problem by restoring the tire to the air pressure specified by the manufacturer.
The vibrations might also be the result of uneven tire wear. Inspect the tread on your tires, and if you notice that it’s wearing down more on one side than the other, you should rotate the tires to ensure even tire wear.
One way to avoid future tire related issues is to learn how to read the tread pattern – check your tires regularly and you will be able to spot signs of trouble in time.
Vibrations caused by wheels are usually felt through the steering wheel. One of the possible culprits for this might be worn or damaged wheel bearings. Though they should generally last for the whole lifetime of your vehicle, as with any other mechanical part, they can go out at any time, for a number of reasons.
Another thing to look for are the tie rod ends or ball joints. If the steering wheel feels ordinary while you’re driving straight but starts to shake around a curve, this may signal worn out tie rod ends. If, however, your steering wheel shakes while you’re driving straight but stops when you’re making a curve, this may be a sign that a ball joint should be replaced.
Wheel runout might be yet another cause of car vibrations. The term refers to any deviation from a truly circular spin and it’s measured with a dial indicator. This wheel issue might result in either up and down vibrations or a sideways, wobbly motion in a wheel.
If your car’s engine isn’t getting enough oxygen, fuel, or spark that is needed for it to run smoothly, you’ll probably notice that the vibration is coming from the engine compartment. This issue manifests through jerks and shaking when your vehicle increases in speed, or rumbles within a specific speed range.
To get ahold of this problem, you should check the spark plugs and install a new set if the old ones are worn out. Don’t forget to inspect the state of the fuel and air filters as well: if they are clogged or dirty, the engine will be deprived of the necessary fuel or oxygen. To prevent this from happening, be sure to change them regularly.
If, on the other hand, your car’s vibration issues are not related to any particular speed but occur when you stop at a red light or you park with the engine on, then the engine mounts might be worn out or damaged, and need to be replaced.
If you have noticed vibrations when you apply the brakes, it’s highly likely you’re dealing with a worn out or warped brake rotor. If this is the case, you’ll get shaking through your steering wheel while you’re braking, or a pulsing feeling directly through your brake pedal. Be sure to have the rotor checked and skimmed, or replaced completely.
A worn out or rusted brake caliper pin is another reason, but it usually affects only older cars. You will probably feel your steering wheel start to vibrate around 50 miles per hour if this is the reason behind the vibrations. As you increase your speed, this will intensify and you’ll sense a burning smell when you stop.
Keep in mind that, in terms of safety, the car’s braking system is one of the most important systems in a vehicle. It is susceptible to wear and tear, so be sure you’re keeping it in good condition by checking brake pads, rotors and all the other brake system components routinely and timely.
If your vehicle has suffered a collision or some other accident recently, it may be that your axle was bent or damaged. In that case, you will notice that the vibrations occur as you increase your speed – they will intensify the faster you drive.
A closely related problem in this context is that of the driveshaft / U-joints, a mechanical component which transmits engine power to the rear or front axles (depending whether you drive a rear-wheel-drive or a front-wheel-drive vehicle).
If your car seems to bounce up and down in the front (in FWD vehicles), and you notice vibration and a crackling noise coming from that part, you may be dealing with a worn out or broken constant velocity joint (CV joint). The solution is to repair and fit the CV joints or replace the driveshaft entirely. On the other hand, if your car seems to bounce up and down in the rear end (in RWD vehicles), and you notice the vibration intensifies as you slow down from a high speed, you may be dealing with worn out universal joints (U-joints) on driveshaft. In this case, either the U-joints or the entire driveshaft need replacement.
The five reasons outlined in this article are the most common, but not the only possible culprits behind your car’s vibration issues.
The fact is that no one knows your car as well as you do. If there are some unusual noises, shaking or jerking – you’ll be the first to notice them. Learn how to listen to your car and don’t ignore the warning signals.
Don’t let the occasional vibrations develop to the point where each ride becomes a nerve-racking experience. Be sure to act promptly, and, if in doubt, always consult a car repair technician for professional advice.
Gasoline and diesel fuel both are products that are made from crude oil. When a barrel of crude oil comes into the refinery, it's distilled into its heavier and lighter components.
The lighter stuff is used to make gasoline. The next-heaviest stuff becomes jet fuel. After that on the scale comes diesel. And below that is the stuff they use to fuel ships, and run power plants.
So, gasoline is lighter, less dense, more flammable and more volatile. When you spray gasoline into a cylinder, it starts to vaporize immediately, so that as soon as the spark plug fires, the gasoline detonates and powers the engine.
Diesel fuel is heavier, denser, less flammable and less volatile. So in order to detonate it, it has to be compressed in a cylinder to a very high pressure and temperature, at which point it detonates without a spark.
The upside of diesel fuel is that, because it's denser, it has more energy per gallon. That's one reason why diesel-powered vehicles get more miles per gallon.
The downside is that diesel fuel requires a very-high-compression engine, which is more expensive to build. And because it relies on temperature to detonate, diesel engines traditionally have more trouble starting in cold temperatures.
It might seem simple to pick engine oil for your car. You just look for the starburst symbol that indicates the oil has been tested and meets the standards of the American Petroleum Institute (API). In addition, there's a 2-character service designation on the container. API's latest service standard is "SL." SL refers to a group of laboratory and engine tests, including the latest series for control of high-temperature deposits. Your third task is to pick the viscosity (thickness) that's suitable for the temperatures your vehicle normally operates in (check your owners manual), and you're done. Well, not quite. There's a whole lot more to the story than that.
These are the labels you'll find on every container of reputable motor oil. The API donut on the right tells you if the oil meets the current SL service rating (C for diesel engines). It also provides the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) viscosity number and tells you if the oil has passed the Energy Conserving test. The starburst symbol on the left indicates that the oil has passed the tests listed for SL service.
Is oil really the lifeblood of an engine? That's a long-popular analogy, but it's really not an accurate description. Blood carries nutrients to cells, but it's air that carries fuel—the "nutrition"—for an engine. However, without oil to lubricate and cool moving parts, keep them clean and help to seal the pistons in the cylinders, the engine would run for only a matter of seconds, then seize. So, yes, oil is important.
Oil is so important that we want no less than the best the engine can get—for a good low price, of course. Now, what if you could custom-blend the oil so it had exactly the characteristics you believe that your vehicle needs for the type of driving you do?
Sounds pretty neat, and we were given the opportunity to do just that at the Valvoline lab in Lexington, Ky. When we were finished, we had an oil we thought would be just right for upcoming summer weather in short-trip driving around the New York City area.
That was our one shot at playing lubricant scientist, but the experience produced only enough oil for a top-up. So at the next oil change, we'll have to pick from an off-the-shelf assortment--like everyone else. But we think we'll do a better job of selection now, thanks to a short course in engine oil blending from Valvoline Technical Director Thomas Smith. Here's what we learned.
Viscosity (a fluid's resistance to flow) is rated at 0° F (represented by the number preceding the "W" [for Winter]) and at 212° F (represented by the second number in the viscosity designation). So 10W-30 oil has less viscosity when cold and hot than does 20W-50. Motor oil thins as it heats and thickens as it cools. So, with the right additives to help it resist thinning too much, an oil can be rated for one viscosity when cold, another when hot. The more resistant it is to thinning, the higher the second number (10W-40 versus 10W-30, for example) and that's good. Within reason, thicker oil generally seals better and maintains a better film of lubrication between moving parts.
At the low-temperature end, oil has to be resistant to thickening so that it flows more easily to all the moving parts in your engine. Also, if the oil is too thick the engine requires more energy to turn the crankshaft, which is partly submerged in a bath of oil. Excessive thickness can make it harder to start the engine, which reduces fuel economy. A 5W oil is typically what's recommended for winter use. However, synthetic oils can be formulated to flow even more easily when cold, so they are able to pass tests that meet the 0W rating.
Once the engine is running, the oil heats up. The second number in the viscosity rating--the "40" in 10W-40, for example--tells you that the oil will stay thicker at high temperatures than one with a lower second number--the "30" in 10W-30, for example. What's really important is that you use the oil viscosity your car's owner's manual recommends.
Premium Conventional Oil: This is the standard new-car oil. All leading brands have one for service level SL, available in several viscosities. The carmakers usually specify a 5W-20 or 5W-30 oil, particularly for lower temperatures, with a 10W-30 oil as optional, particularly for higher ambient temperatures. These three ratings cover just about every light-duty vehicle on the road. Even more important, though, is changing the oil and filter regularly. A 4000 miles/4 months interval is good practice. The absolute minimum is twice a year. If your car has an electronic oil-change indicator on the instrument cluster, don't exceed its warning.
Full Synthetic Oil: The oils made for high-tech engines, whether in a Chevy Corvette or Mercedes-Benz, are full synthetics. If these oils pass stringent special tests (indicated by their labeling), it means they have superior, longer-lasting performance in all the critical areas, from viscosity index to protection against deposits. They flow better at low temperatures and maintain peak lubricity at high temperatures. So why shouldn't everyone use them? Answer: These oils are expensive and not every engine needs them. In fact, there may be some features that your car's engine needs that the synthetics don't have. Again, follow your owner's manual.
Synthetic Blend Oil: These have a dose of synthetic oil mixed with organic oil, and overall are formulated to provide protection for somewhat heavier loads and high temperatures. This generally means they're less volatile, so they evaporate far less, which reduces oil loss (and increases fuel economy). They're popular with drivers of pickups/SUVs who want the high-load protection. And they're a lot less expensive than full synthetics, maybe just pennies more than a premium conventional oil
Higher Mileage Oil: Today's vehicles last longer, and if you like the idea of paying off the car and running the mileage well into six figures, you have another oil choice, those formulated for higher-mileage vehicles. Almost two-thirds of the vehicles on the road have more than 75,000 miles on the odometer. So the oil refiners have identified this as an area of customer interest, and have new oils they're recommending for these vehicles.
When your car or light truck/SUV is somewhat older and has considerably more mileage, you may notice a few oil stains on the garage floor. It's about this time that you need to add a quart more often than when the vehicle was new. Crankshaft seals may have hardened and lost their flexibility, so they leak (particularly at low temperatures) and may crack. The higher-mileage oils are formulated with seal conditioners that flow into the pores of the seals to restore their shape and increase their flexibility. In most cases, rubber seals are designed to swell just enough to stop leaks. But the oil refiners pick their "reswelling" ingredients carefully. Valvoline showed us the performance data of one good seal conditioner that swelled most seal materials, but actually reduced swelling of one type that tended to swell excessively from the ingredients found in some other engine oils.
You also may have noticed some loss of performance and engine smoothness as a result of engine wear on your higher-mileage vehicle. These higher-mileage oils also have somewhat higher viscosities. (Even if the numbers on the container don't indicate it, there's a fairly wide range for each viscosity rating and the higher-mileage oils sit at the top of each range.) They also may have more viscosity-index improvers in them. The result? They seal piston-to-cylinder clearances better, and won't squeeze out as readily from the larger engine bearing clearances. They also may have a higher dose of anti-wear additives to try to slow the wear process.
If you have an older vehicle, all of these features may mean more to you than what you might get from a full synthetic, and at a fraction the price.
Beyond that, there's plenty more to the oil story. Read on.
Resistance to thinning with increasing temperature is called viscosity index. And although a higher second number is good, the oil also has to be robust. That is, it must be able to last for thousands of miles until the next oil change. For example, oil tends to lose viscosity from shear, the sliding motion between close-fitted metal surfaces of moving parts such as bearings. So resistance to viscosity loss (shear stability) is necessary to enable the oil to maintain the lubricating film between those parts.
Unlike antifreeze, 95 percent of which is made up of one base chemical (typically ethylene glycol), petroleum-type engine oil contains a mixture of several different types of base oil, some more expensive than others. Oil companies typically pick from a selection of five groups, each of which is produced in a different way and in different viscosities. The more expensive groups are more highly processed, in some cases with methods that produce a lubricant that can be classified as a synthetic. The so-called full synthetics contain chemicals that may be derived from petroleum but they're altered so much that they're not considered natural oil anymore. Our custom blend contained 10 percent polyalphaolefins (PAO), the type of chemical that's often the primary ingredient in a full synthetic.
The base oil package in any oil makes up anywhere from 70 to 95 percent of the mix, the rest comprised of additives. Does that mean an oil with just 70 percent base oils is better than one with 95 percent. No, because some of the base oils have natural characteristics or ones that derive from their processing, which reduces or eliminates the need for additives. And although some additives make important contributions to lubrication, by themselves don't necessarily have great lubricity.
The ingredients in an additive package differ in cost, as we said, but price is just one factor. Some work better in certain combinations of base oils, and some of the less-expensive base oils are a good choice for a blend because of the way they perform with popular additives. Bottom line: every motor oil has a recipe. Refiners come up with a list of objectives based on the needs of their customers (the carmakers, for example) and formulate oil to meet those goals as best they can.
Now, keeping an oil from thinning as it gets hot while it takes a beating from engine operation is one thing. But it's also important to keep oil from getting too thick. Using premium base oils for low volatility--to prevent evaporation--is one approach. Evaporation of the base oil package not only increases oil consumption, it results in thicker oil (which decreases fuel economy).
Use of additives is another approach to improving and maintaining oil performance. High engine temperatures combine with moisture, combustion byproducts (including unburned gasoline), rust, corrosion, engine wear particles and oxygen to produce sludge and varnish. The additives not only assist oil in maintaining good lubrication, they also help minimize sludge and varnish, and any damage from their formation. Here are the categories of key additive ingredients and why they're important:
• Viscosity-index improvers: Reduce the oil's tendency to thin with increasing temperature.
• Detergents: Unlike the household type, they don't scrub engine surfaces. They do remove some deposits, primarily solids. But their main purpose is to keep the surfaces clean by inhibiting the formation of high-temperature deposits, rust and corrosion.
• Dispersants: Disperse solid particles, keeping them in solution, so they don't come together to form sludge, varnish and acids. Some additives work both as detergents and dispersants.
• Anti-wear agents: There are times when the lubricating film breaks down, so the anti-wear agents have to protect the metal surfaces. A zinc and phosphorus compound called ZDDP is a long-used favorite, along with other phosphorus (and sulphur) compounds. If you musts know, ZDDP stand for zinc diakyl dithiophosphate.
• Friction modifiers: These aren't the same as antiwear agents. They reduce engine friction and, so, can improve fuel economy. Graphite, molybdenum and other compounds are used.
• Pour-point depressants: Just because the 0° F viscosity rating is low doesn't mean the oil will flow readily at low temperatures. Oil contains wax particles that can congeal and reduce flow, so these additives are used to prevent it.
• Antioxidants: With engine temperatures being pushed up for better emissions control, the antioxidants are needed to prevent oxidation (and, therefore, thickening) of oil. Some of the additives that perform other functions also serve this purpose, such as the anti-wear agents.
• Foam inhibitors: The crankshaft whipping through the oil in the pan causes foaming. Oil foam is not as effective a lubricant as a full-liquid stream, so the inhibitors are used to cause the foam bubbles to collapse.
• Rust/corrosion inhibitors: Protect metal parts from acids and moisture.
You can't necessarily improve an oil by putting in more additives. In fact, you can make things worse. For example, sulphur compounds have anti-wear, antioxidation characteristics, but they can reduce fuel economy and affect catalytic converter operation. Too much of a particular detergent could affect the anti-wear balance. Too much of a specific dispersant could affect catalyst performance and reduce fuel economy. Anti-wear and friction-reducing additives also may have ingredients (such as sulphur) that could affect catalyst performance.
There's a lot of pressure on the oil industry to reduce sulphur content in oil as well as gasoline. But the industry's resistance is understandable when you consider the delicate balancing act it must perform with each revolution of your car's engine.
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There's rarely a single cause for any given car fire, even if an investigator can trace all the way back to the incident that sparked the blaze. It's more likely that there was a combination of causes: human causes, mechanical causes, and chemical causes, and they all worked together to create an incredibly dangerous situation. In other words, once a vehicle's on fire, any number of additional factors can (and will) complicate things. Knowing what those factors are can potentially help a car owner avoid a dangerous situation, but there are no guarantees. And the most important thing to remember is that once a vehicle is ablaze, it really doesn't matter what caused it -- your car is on fire. Don't worry about whether the engine was overheating or what fluid you might have spilled (although that information might be useful later, for insurance purposes or to help an auto manufacturer fix a potential flaw). Right now, it's imperative that you get out fast and get as far away from the car as possible. A small car fire isn't going to stay small for long, and any combination of the initial causes (or complications) we'll discuss in this article will quickly make the situation much, much worse. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) says that vehicle fires account for about 20 percent of all reported fires, so it's worth knowing how to reduce some of the risk in your own car or truck.
A design flaw in a vehicle usually isn't going to cause a car fire on its own, because there's no on/off switch for lighting a vehicle ablaze. Design flaws, however, can make conditions really ripe for a fire, and sometimes even create conditions in which an eventual fire is inevitable. Usually, the manufacturers catch on to these situations before incidents become widespread. They issue recalls to get the dangerous cars off the street and fix the problems, because no car maker wants to be known for combusting its customers. Like all automobile fires, a design flaw is only the first step leading to a blaze. Not all design flaws result in a fire, but any number of problems can make a fire a lot more likely. Though some recent incidents will be used as specific examples on the following pages, it's worth noting that every major auto manufacturer (and plenty of the smaller ones, too) has recalled a vehicle due to a fire hazard.
Human error probably isn't going to be the direct cause of a fire in your vehicle -- after all, being lazy isn't quite the same as striking a match and igniting a wick that goes into the gas tank. But if you're sloppy about maintenance, your car is going to be a lot more dangerous, in general, and the increased likelihood of a car fire is just part of the greater risks you're taking. It's true, forgetting or neglecting to properly take care of your car can indirectly lead to a vicious fire. That's because if you let broken parts, leaky seals, or faulty wiring go without repairs, it'll make your car a lot more hospitable to the conditions that cause a fire. An engine with a bad gasket is more likely to drip hazardous (and flammable) fluids. Frayed wiring is more likely to spark and make contact with flammable materials. Isn't it better to know if your car is a potential deathtrap? Just pop the hood every now and then and take a cursory look around.
Depending on the impact site, a car crash can even spark a car fire. Most vehicles' crumple zones are designed pretty well, so the sheet metal absorbs the force of a blow and protects internal, dangerous spots like the engine, the battery and even the gas tank. But really, there's not actually that much of a barrier there, so a hard enough hit is likely to cause fluid leaks and spillage, as well as heat and smoke. And, as we know, high heat and spilled fluids create perfect conditions for a fire. Since it's hard for occupants of a crashed vehicle to see the extent of the damage while they're still inside, the threat of a fire might not be immediately apparent; however, it's always best to get away from a damaged car as soon as possible. Consider yourself lucky if you're not trapped inside a crashed vehicle -- even if it does go up in flames, at least you're a safe distance away.
Arson -- the criminal act of setting a fire. Now, why would anyone deliberately set a car on fire, anyway? It could be to cover up a theft, or to cover up the evidence of another crime. It could be old fashioned vandalism, too, wrecking something just for the sake of wrecking it. Or it could be insurance fraud. And there are probably several more reasons, but that's best left to the criminal masterminds. It's worth noting that it's pretty easy to set a car on fire -- perhaps doing it without being detected is a challenge, but actually igniting a car blaze is simple. An arsonist can use any combination of catalysts, causes on this list (and more) to start the fire -- and a skilled auto arsonist can sometimes get away with it, too. After all, the physical evidence is a smoldering mess. We aren't advocating this by any means, but we are saying that an arsonist is yet another reason your car might be ablaze.
Not long after the Tesla Model S was awarded the unofficial title of "the safest car ever" by the media (and by Tesla Motors), a Tesla Model S caught fire in the fall of 2013. That's never good, of course, but for Tesla, it was especially bad. The company had implied numerous times that its fully electric Model S was all but immune to the battery-related
Throughout 2011 and 2012, the Chevy Volt made headlines when a bunch of test vehicles caught fire during impact testing. Federal regulators determined that in most of these cases, leaking coolant interacted with the damaged batteries to spark the blaze, and General Motors was able to come up with a fix that satisfied government safety officials. Concerns about hybrid and electric batteries go way back, though, and there are new potential risks with each new design. It might be a while before the safety concerns from these high profile incidents fade from the public consciousness.
Overheating catalytic converters are a fire risk that's often overlooked, but think about it: One of the consistently hottest parts of your car runs the entire length of the vehicle -- the exhaust system. Catalytic converters usually overheat because they are working too hard to burn off more exhaust pollutants than they're designed to process. In other words, if the car's engine isn't operating efficiently (due to worn spark plugs or any number of other adverse conditions), it doesn't burn the fuel properly, and a lot of extra stuff ends up in the exhaust system. The cat then has to work extra hard to do its job, which makes it even hotter than usual. An overworked (or clogged) catalytic converter can easily go from its normal operating temperature range of about 1,200 to 1,600 degrees Fahrenheit (648.9 to 871.1 degrees Celsius) to up over 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (1,093.3 degrees Celsius). This causes long-term damage not only to the cat itself, but to the car's surrounding parts. The car's designed to withstand the cat's normal temps, but it can't consistently cope with temperatures several hundred degrees higher. If the catalytic converter gets hot enough, it could ignite the cabin insulation and carpeting right through the heat shields and metal floor pan.
An engine that overheats and causes a car to catch on fire is an especially good example of how one problem can lead to another. A car's engine probably won't overheat enough to simply burst into flames all on its own. But what can happen (and pretty easily, by the way), is an engine can overheat and make the internal fluids, like oil and coolant, rise to dangerous temperatures and begin to spill out of their designated areas of circulation. When that happens, they drip, drizzle and spurt throughout the engine bay and onto the exhaust system, landing on other hot parts, where they can easily ignite and spread.
In some cases, like the late-2012 recall of about 90,000 Ford cars equipped with a specific EcoBoost powertrain, an engine that overheats is sometimes a design flaw that's fixable with a software update -- modifying the car's computer to help keep engine temperatures at a safer (lower temperature) threshold. Generally, though, an overheating engine requires mechanical attention. There's often a leaky seal or gasket, or the radiator isn't working properly, or any number of other things. If your car's engine is constantly overheating ... well, that's not a symptom to ignore.
The average car or truck has a number of flammable and highly dangerous fluids under the hood: gasoline or diesel fuel, engine oil, transmission fluid, power steering fluid, brake fluid and even engine coolant. All of those fluids are circulating when the car is on, and all of them can catch fire pretty easily if their lines, hoses or reservoirs take a hit. So even though one of the car's vital liquids is unlikely to start spewing or dripping out of nowhere -- generally, something else has to go wrong first -- the fact that all of these fluids are flammable to begin with is a problem in and of itself. Combined with another aggravating factor, like a car crash or a failed part, the result could be a fire. Though such a blaze is most likely to start in the engine bay, where all of these dangerous liquids are concentrated, keep in mind that some of them, like fuel and brake fluid, are moved along the entire length of the car.
Electrical system failures take the second spot on the list because they're the second most common cause of car fires. Car batteries are problematic, and not just the hybrid and all-electric vehicle battery pack types we've already discussed. A typical car's standard battery is capable of causing plenty of trouble. The battery's charging cycles can cause explosive hydrogen gas to build up in the engine bay, and the electrical current the battery provides (along with faulty or loose wiring) can produce sparks that can quickly ignite a fluid drip or leaked vapors. The electrical system's hazards aren't confined to the area under the hood, either. Electrical wiring runs throughout the entire car; through channels, into doors, under the carpet and through powered and heated seats, just to name a few places where a stray, unnoticed frayed wire could cause havoc.
Leaks in the fuel system are the most common cause of vehicle fires, so that's why they take the top spot on our list. As we've already seen, any number of complicating factors can cause a fuel leak, but they're tricky because fuel leaks can also arise on their own and with very little warning. A fuel system leak is really dangerous. We've already discussed that a lot of a car's fluids have corrosive, poisonous and flammable properties, but gasoline is among the worst. Gasoline at a temperature of just 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7.2 degrees Celsius) or above can quickly catch fire from a simple spark. It happens all the time in a running car, after all, but it's contained by the engine. And gasoline that reaches 495 degrees Fahrenheit (257.2 degrees Celsius) will ignite by itself. It's easy to see how fuel dripping onto hot metal and plastic parts can cause a fast-spreading fire. The best way to reduce chances of a fuel system fire is to make sure the car is properly maintained and to keep it out of the situations we've already described. And if you ever smell gas in or around your car, find and fix the leak immediately!
It's important to keep your battery maintained! Terminals must be removed periodically and cleaned, also the top of the battery should be wiped clean... Any dirt and grime on the top of the battery will conduct electricity, which will travel between the negative side to the positive side and slowly discharge your battery! Back To Top^
We sell replacement side view mirrors for most makes and models of cars!
Call NOW! Installation available! 908-862-9071
cars have timing belts, and they have to be replaced around 100K miles...Check
your owners manual! It's extremely important to do this at the recommended time.
We only use factory original parts (unlike other shops) when we do this work, as
failure of lower cost parts can cause catastrophic damage. At this time is when
you replace the water pump, thermostat, antifreeze, cam and crankshaft seals if
needed, tensioners and pulleys. Usually about this time, it's also time to do a
tune up, plugs, PCV valve, serpentine belt, check hoses.
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BSE Automotive, 218 W. Elizabeth Ave, Linden, NJ (corner of Lumber St.) 908-862-9071
Brake Service, Muffler Repair, CV Joints, Radiator Repair, Tune Up, General Automotive Maintenance, Car Repair, Auto Repair, Cooling System Service, Timing Belt Replacement, Water Pump Repair, Carburetor Repair, Replace Serpentine Belts, Check Engine Light On, Transmission Service, Ball Joints, Rear Ends & Differentials Rebuilt & Serviced, U Joints Replaced, Front End Work, Steering, Rack & Pinion Service, Power Steering Repaired, Clutches Replaced. We Sell Aftermarket Auto Parts, Radiators, Batteries, Side View Mirrors, Head Lamp Assemblies, Tail Lamp Assemblies, Hoods, Fenders, Bumpers, Trailer Hitches! 908-862-9071
Conveniently located Across from the Linden Train Station for Linden NJ, Clark NJ, Cranford NJ, Westfield NJ, Roselle NJ, Roselle Park NJ, Elizabeth NJ, Mountainside NJ, Watchung NJ, Springfield NJ, Union NJ, New Providence NJ, Berkeley Heights NJ, Avenel NJ, Fords NJ, Carteret NJ, Colonia NJ, Iselin NJ, Rahway NJ, Edison NJ, Woodbridge NJ, Fanwood NJ, Scotch Plains NJ, Garwood NJ, Colonia NJ residents.
We replace CV joints and front wheel drive axles!
Quality and Honesty with fair prices!
CABIN FILTERS Back To Top^
filter replacement is one of the biggest scams and money makers for the many
quick change oil change chain shops out there! They change your oil real cheap
(and who knows what they are putting back), then tell you that you need to
change your cabin filter, and give you some crazy price, sometimes over $100!
These filters should be changed from time to time, but are usually very easy to
change, and don't cost that much aftermarket...
The cabin air filter, a feature found on most late-model vehicles, cleans the air that comes into the interior through the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system. It catches dust, pollen and other airborne material that can make riding in a car unpleasant, particularly if you have allergies or other respiratory problems.
Some signs that you need a new cabin air filter are reduced air flow through your HVAC system, such as when you crank up the fan too high and you get more noise than results. Another is persistent bad odors. Even if you don't have these warnings, you should have the filter checked at least once a year, and you may be able to do that yourself.
Many cabin air filters are located behind the glove box and are easily accessible by freeing the glove box from its fasteners (instructions should be in the owner's manual). Others are located under the dashboard and may not be easy to reach, or under the hood where fresh air enters the HVAC system. Some of these filters are expensive, as in $50 or more at dealerships, so you could save money by buying a replacement at a parts store and doing it yourself.
If a dealership service department or repair shop recommends you get a new cabin air filter, ask to see the current one. Depending on how long the filter has been in service, you might be shocked at what you see: leaves, twigs, insects, soot and grime that literally cover the entire surface that comes in contact with incoming air. You'll know it's time for a new cabin air filter.
Tire Pressure Back To Top^
are one of the most overlooked parts of a car. According the Rubber
Manufacturers Association (RMA), only one out of 10 drivers checks his or her
tire pressure correctly, compared with almost seven out of 10 who wash their
cars regularly. But the truth is that an under-inflated,
Tire pressure changes with the rising temperatures -- approximately one to two PSI (pounds per square inch) for every 10-degree increase in outside air temperature. Consult your owner's manual or the tag on the side of your drivers door, to see what your tire pressure should be and check it with a hand pressure gauge or just let your service shop do it for you.
An under-inflated tire bulges outward and puts undo pressure on the sidewalls of the tire. With enough heat and pressure, that tire eventually will blow. An over-inflated tire, on the other hand, makes less contact with the road and can lead to hydroplaning in wet conditions.
Use the penny trick to see if you still have enough tread on your tires. Stick a penny in the tread, and if Lincoln's head disappears, you're good.
And don't forget about your spare! There's no point in having a spare tire if your spare is in worse condition than the rest. Make sure the spare is properly inflated and has ample tread depth.
Keeping Cool Back To Top^
key to engine longevity is keeping the engine cool and well lubricated. We're
going to talk about the radiator and coolant soon, but first you need to check
the hoses and belts. The hoses connected to the radiator help move coolant to
and from the engine block, and the belts (in some cases) run the fan that helps
cool the system further, as well as run the water pump. If the hoses crack or
the belts snap, the engine will quickly overheat, leaving you stranded.
Check hoses for cracks, leaks and loose connections. Hoses should be firm, never soft and malleable. Hoses suffer from a slow deterioration process called electrochemical
Belts can also be visually checked for cracks and damage. Take note if the belt looks excessively slick or smooth. Check the belt to make sure that the material hasn't started separating into different layers. Experts say the risk of belt failure rises dramatically after 36,000 miles (57,936 kilometers).
Cars are designed to run hot, but there's a limit to how hot they should run. A combustion engine is most efficient at around 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93 degrees Celsius). But if an engine is allowed to get too hot, moving metal parts can actually start to melt and fuse together, causing a variety of internal problems for your engine, piston rings lose tension and not performing as they should resulting in loss of compression and large amounts of oil consumption, heads and blocks warping -- and, you guessed it, a hefty repair bill, in most cases requiring engine replacement.
Luckily, all modern cars have an ingenious cooling system that uses a chemical coolant, called antifreeze, and a series of pumps, hoses, thermostats and fans to keep the car at its optimal running temperature. But any problems with this system -- low coolant levels, cracked hoses, stuck thermostat, loose or broken belts, a leak in the radiator or even a loose or missing radiator cap can cause your car to overheat and break down.
The summertime is tough on cooling systems. Sitting in traffic on a hot day is one of the quickest ways to overheat your car. This is because there's no air flowing across the engine to help keep it cool. A well-tuned cooling system can take long idles in hot weather, but if you have low coolant levels or a busted fan belt (on vehicles where the belt either drives the fan or water pump), your engine temperature is going to go up -- and fast. Most cars today have electric fans, which are controlled by a temperature switch on the engine. If either the switch fails or the fans fail, your car can also overheat. If you have a CHECK ENGINE light on, always have it looked into immediately! A lot of cars today have water pumps, which are driven by the timing belt, and not the "fan" belt, which is a slang term for this type of application. This is why it's important to always replace the water pump when replacing the timing belt, so you're getting a new water pump every 100K miles or so, virtually eliminating any problems there, providing you use a good quality water pump. A faulty water pump can also cause premature timing belt failure, which is another reason to replace the pump.
Another weak spot in your cooling system is the Thermostat. I recommend always changing the thermostat whenever the radiator or water pump is replaced, or a new timing belt is installed. Also, from personal experience, I recommend using a factory (original equipment) thermostat, when ever possible. I've seen too many failures from aftermarket thermostats... If using aftermarket, I prefer Gates or Standard. Stay away from Motorad thermostats sold by Autozone, and others... You're just asking for trouble!
Check under the hood and make sure that your coolant levels are fine. The general rule is to change your coolant at least every two years. Coolant should be added as a 50/50 mixture of antifreeze and water. You can even buy premixed coolant so you don't have to bother with the measurements. When ever possible, try to use distilled water.
If you see a small puddle of coolant under your car when it's been parked for a while, then you have a coolant leak. Take it to the service station as soon as you can to get your system checked out.
Is one of your tires slowly losing air pressure? Most likely, you've picked up a nail. The nail acts as a plug, but not very effectively, which is why the leak is very slow. Continuing to drive like this can cause the nail or object to come out, causing you to lose all your air quickly, or cause the the leak to get worse. This is VERY common, but also very easy to repair. We can quickly and inexpensively plug your tire correctly and permanently, before the leak gets worse, and leaves you with a flat somewhere! Give us a call. 908-862-9071.
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you notice the battery light come on in your car, it's imperative to have it
checked out ASAP, as the car will run with a defective alternator, but only for
a short time till the battery runs too low, and you will get stuck. Most cars
today, require more energy to keep running, and once the battery voltage gets
too low, it won't have enough of the power that the vehicle requires to run.
While an alternator is a relatively simple component containing only a few parts, it plays a critical role in any vehicle's operation. Essentially it turns the mechanical energy of the engine's rotating crank shaft into electricity through induction. Wires within the alternator cut through a magnetic field; this in turn induces electrical current, which is regulated by a voltage regulator (usually inside the alternator). That current is used to power your car's accessories, which can be anything from headlights to the electro-hydraul
Because the alternator is connected to (and critical for) other vehicle systems, any mechanical auto problems can have an affect on its function and have an affect on diagnosing car problems.
Within the instrument cluster of most cars built in the last decade is a warning light dedicated to signaling an alternator issue. In most cases the light is shaped like a battery, though some show "ALT" or "GEN," meaning alternator or generator, respectively. Many people see this light and instinctively think they have a battery problem, which is symptom that will be covered later, but that's not really why the light goes on.
This light is linked to computer systems within the car monitoring the voltage output of the alternator. If the alternator's output goes below or above a pre-set limit then the dash light comes on. Once the output is within range the light remains unlit. In the early stages of alternator problems the light can seem to flicker -- on for just a second and then off again. Or maybe it lights up only when accessories are activated. For instance, let's say its nighttime and the headlights are on and everything is working just fine. Then it begins to rain. As you flick on the windshield wipers the warning light comes on. Turn off the wipers and it goes away. While that may initially seem like an aggravating problem, the warning light is doing its job exactly.
Most alternators have an output between 13 and 14.5 volts that they try to maintain at a constant level. As more power is demanded by the headlights, the windshield wipers, your radio, the heated seats, the rear window defroster and so on, the alternator needs to work harder to maintain the necessary voltage. If your car's alternator is not working to its full potential, or demands are placed on it that it can no longer meet, the voltage will either go above or below the set level and switch on the warning light. Since the alternator supplies the vehicle's electrical needs, when it begins to lose its potential so do the accessories that draw on that electricity. Drivers may begin to experience erratic symptoms ranging from dimming or extremely bright headlights and dash lights, to speedometers and tachometers that simply stop working for no reason, even dash lights acting erratically. Other accessories, like heated seats or power windows may experience a slowdown as well.
BSE Automotive - Linden
NJ - 908-862-9071 -
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a car long enough and there's a good chance you'll develop auto problems of some
nature. And one of the most common and most bothersome problems is vibration.
What's more, it often creeps up on you gradually and subtly -- until one day you
find yourself wondering how you ever put up with such an annoyance.
Perhaps then you asked yourself, what does it mean if my car is vibrating? While there's no substitute for the assessment of someone with an extensive automotive background, you can develop a good feel yourself for diagnosing car problems that are relatively common, such as vibrations.
The fix could be something relatively cheap and simple, like a tire rotation or balance. Or it could signal more serious auto problems -- something more costly, like steering or suspension issues.
Diagnosing car trouble in its early stages may seem like a hassle at first, but you have to remember that it can often save you from bigger car trouble (and bigger repair bills) down the road.
Sometimes a shake or shudder could emanate from the engine compartment, if the engine isn't getting enough air, fuel or spark that it needs to run smoothly.
Symptoms that might indicate such an engine-related case of the shakes include the following:
> Shudder or jerking occurs during acceleration.
> Staccato shaking, as if over a highway "rumble strip," within a specific speed range.
> Car starts and drives fine for a while, but later begins to shake.
These symptoms could be signaling that it's time for a new set of spark plugs, vacuum leak. If the plugs are fine, it could be that the spark plug wires need to be checked (are they connected in the proper order?) or replacing, or a faulty ignition circuit... usually something like this will trigger a check engine light
Our vehicles are full of reciprocating, rotating parts that have to fall within certain measurements, or tolerances, in order to perform properly.
If an axle gets bent -- which is actually quite easy to do in a collision or other mishap -- it will create a jostle of a ride afterward. With this problem, the vibrating often picks up in intensity the faster you drive.
A related problem would be that the driveshaft also needs inspection. This rapidly spinning part transfers engine power to the rear axles and wheels in rear-wheel drive vehicles. If it's bent, shaking may result.
Worn-out constant velocity (CV) joints fall under the same category. If the "boots" -- those rubber, accordion-like coverings around the ends of the drive axles -- are intact, clamps are secure, and no lubricant is seeping out, chances are they're not the problem. But if the boots are torn, that means dirt and dust and road filth is getting in and damaging the joints. For front-wheel drive cars, toasted CV joints mean you'll be buying new drive axles, too.
Do those bad vibrations appear or intensify when you apply the brakes? If so, there's a strong possibility that your car is tooling about with a warped brake rotor, or rotors.
The rotor is the shiny, silver disc-shaped component on vehicles with a disc brake system. The rotor can get bent out of shape due to heavy wear and tear -- basically, overheating from more stopping than that particular rotor can handle. Instead of being uniformly flat all the way across, a deformed rotor is raised or lowered on part of its surface. The calipers and brake pads, which squeeze the brake rotors to make the car stop, can't get an even grip on a warped rotor. Hence, vibration.
Often, you'll feel your car vibrating directly through your steering wheel. And one seemingly logical thing to guess is that an alignment issue might be the culprit.
One or more wheels may suffer from excessive "play," or wobbliness, at the hub itself. The diagnosis and cure for this is pretty involved, as it could point to any of a number of issues. First, let's just assume that each wheel is fastened securely to its hub with properly torqued lug nuts.
With that out of the way, the solution to a shaky wheel might entail replacing the wheel bearings. On most modern vehicles, wheel bearings are meant to last the life of the car or truck. But as you may already know, if you subject your vehicle to worse-than-typi
Another thing to look for is "runout." This is the term that describes how much a wheel deviates from a perfectly circular rotation when it is spun. Wheel technicians use precision instruments to determine if runout on any particular wheel exceeds half an inch. Much of the time -- but not all the time -- the solution is a new wheel.
Other sources of wiggling, wobbly wheels include the tie-rod ends or ball joints. If they're worn out, they'll allow too much play in the wheel. At driving speeds, this translates to annoying vibration.
Wheels / tires prove to be a common culprit when tracking down reasons for why a car is vibrating. Also related... DIRT!!!... Yes... Mud in you wheels can really raise havoc after getting stuck in the mud. At least this is a simple fix.
Bad shocks, particularly the rear shocks, where there's less weight, can cause your tires to "bounce" while driving.
Tires are the #`1 source of your car's moving vibrations.
The full list of ways in which tire issues can contribute to your vehicular shake, rattle and roll is a long one. But here are just some of the major ones:
> Car vibrates at certain speeds -- requires tire balance.
> Tires have separated tread -- requires tire replacement.
> Uneven tire wear -- requires tire rotation (check shocks & alignment).
> Tires that are "out of round" and roll unevenly - requires tire replacement.
Sometimes it isn't the tires, but rather the wheels they're wrapped around that cause your car or truck to vibrate when driven. Watch out for potholes and sloppy road repairs which can both be equally hazardous to your wheels.
BSE Automotive - Linden, NJ - 908-862-9071
Honest - Quality - Reliable Auto Repair!
We sell aftermarket body parts and crash parts! Fenders, hoods, fan assemblies, bumpers & bumper covers, headlamps, tail lamps, signal lamps, side view mirrors, radiators, condensers, heater cores, door regulators, auto glass, header panels, trailer hitches, and more!
GREAT deals on Batteries! We sell and install!
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Quality, Honest, Reliable Automotive Repair in Linden, NJ.
Conveniently located across from the Linden Train Station.
Give us a call... You'll be glad you did!
218 W. Elizabeth Ave. (corner of Lumber St.)
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We sell and install new HEAD LAMPS on most cars and trucks!
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We sell and install automotive radiators and service cooling systems!
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We sell and install TAIL LAMPS for most makes and models of cars!
Call today for your needs! Great prices! 908-862-9071
BSE Automotive - Linden, NJ
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BSE Automotive gladly serving all of NJ: Absecon, Adelphia, Allamuchy, Allendale, Allenhurst, Allentown, Allenwood, Alloway, Alpine, Andover, Annandale, Asbury, Asbury Park, Atco, Atlantic City, Atlantic Highlands, Audubon, Augusta, Avalon, Avenel, Avon By The Sea, Baptistown, Barnegat, Barnegat Light, Barrington, Basking Ridge, Bass River, Bayonne, Bayville, Beach Haven, Beachwood, Bedminster, Belford, Belle Mead, Belleville, Bellmawr, Belmar, Belvidere, Bergenfield, Berkeley, Berkeley Heights, Berlin, Bernards, Bernardsville, Beverly, Birmingham, Blackwood, Blairstown, Blawenburg, Bloomfield, Bloomingdale, Bloomsbury, Bogota, Boonton, Bordentown, Bound Brook, Bradley Beach, Branchville, Brick, Bridgeport, Bridgeton, Bridgewater, Brielle, Brigantine, Broadway, Brookside, Browns Mills, Budd Lake, Buena, Burlington, Butler, Buttzville, Caldwell, Califon, Camden, Cape May, Cape May Court House, Cape May Point, Carlstadt, Carteret, Cedar Brook, Cedar Grove, Cedar Knolls, Cedarville, Changewater, Chatham, Chatsworth, Cherry Hill, Chester, Clark, Clarksboro, Clarksburg, Clayton, Clementon, Cliffside Park, Cliffwood, Clifton, Clinton, Closter, Collingswood, Cologne, Colonia, Colts Neck, Columbia, Columbus, Cookstown, Cranbury, Cranford, Cream Ridge, Cresskill, Crosswicks, Dayton, Deal, Deepwater, Deerfield Street, Delaware, Delmont, Demarest, Dennisville, Denville, Dividing Creek, Dorchester, Dorothy, Dover, Downe, Dumont, Dunellen, East Amwell, East Brunswick, East Hanover, East Orange, East Rutherford, Eatontown, Edgewater, Edison, Egg Harbor City, Egg Harbor Township, Elizabeth, Elmer, Elmwood Park, Elwood, Magnolia, Emerson, Englewood, Englewood Cliffs, Englishtown, Essex Fells, Estell Manor, Ewan, Fair Haven, Fair Lawn, Fairfield, Fairton, Fairview, Fanwood, Far Hills, Farmingdale, Flagtown, Flanders, Flemington, Florence, Florham Park, Fords, Forked River, Fort Lee, Fort Monmouth, Fortescue, Franklin, Franklin Lakes, Franklin Park, Franklinville, Freehold, Frenchtown, Garfield, Garwood, Gibbsboro, Gibbstown, Gillette, Gladstone, Glassboro, Glasser, Glen Gardner, Glen Ridge, Glen Rock, Glendora, Glenwood, Gloucester City, Goshen, Great Meadows, Great Meadows-Vienna, Green Creek, Green Village, Greendell, Greenwich, Grenloch, Hackensack, Hackettstown, Haddon Heights, Haddonfield, Hainesport, Haledon, Hamburg, Hammonton, Hampton, Hancocks Bridge, Hardyston, Harrington Park, Harrison, Harrisonville, Hasbrouck Heights, Haskell, Haworth, Hawthorne, Hazlet, Heislerville, Helmetta, Hewitt, Hibernia, High Bridge, Highland Lakes, Highland Park, Highlands, Hightstown, Hillsdale, Hillside, Ho Ho Kus, Ho-Ho-Kus, Hoboken, Holmdel, Hopatcong, Hope, Hopewell, Howell, Imlaystown, Ironia, Irvington, Iselin, Island Heights, Jackson, Jamesburg, Jersey City, Jobstown, Johnsonburg, Juliustown, Keansburg, Kearny, Keasbey, Kendall Park, Kenilworth, Kenvil, Keyport, Kingston, Lafayette, Lake Hiawatha, Lake Hopatcong, Lakehurst, Lakewood, Lambertville, Landing, Landisville, Lanoka Harbor, Lavallette, Lawnside, Layton, Lebanon, Ledgewood, Leeds Point, Leesburg, Leonardo, Leonia, Liberty Corner, Lincoln Park, Lincroft, Linden, Linwood, Little Falls, Little Ferry, Little Silver, Little York, Livingston, Lodi, Long Branch, Long Valley, Longport, Lumberton, Lyndhurst, Lyons, Madison, Magnolia, Mahwah, Malaga, Manahawkin, Manasquan, Mantoloking, Mantua, Manville, Maple Shade, Maplewood, Margate City, Marlboro, Marlton, Marmora, Martinsville, Matawan, Maurice River, Mauricetown, Mays Landing, Maywood, McAfee, Medford, Mendham, Merchantville, Metuchen, Mickleton, Middlesex, Middletown, Middleville, Midland Park, Milford, Millburn, Millington, Millstone, Milltown, Millville, Milmay, Mine Hill, Minotola, Mizpah, Monmouth Beach, Monmouth Junction, Monroeville, Montague, Montclair, Montvale, Montville, Moonachie, Moorestown, Morganville, Morris Plains, Morristown, Mount Arlington, Mount Ephraim, Mount Freedom, Mount Holly, Mount Laurel, Mount Royal, 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Monmouth, Port Murray, Port Norris, Port Reading, Port Republic, Pottersville, Princeton, Princeton Junction, Quakertown, Quinton, Rahway, Ramsey, Rancocas, Randolph, Raritan, Readington, Red Bank, Richland, Richwood, Ridgefield, Ridgefield Park, Ridgewood, Ringoes, Ringwood, Rio Grande, River Edge, Riverdale, Riverside, Riverton, Rochelle Park, Rockaway, Rocky Hill, Roebling, Roosevelt, Roseland, Roselle, Roselle Park, Rosemont, Rosenhayn, Rumson, Runnemede, Rutherford, Saddle Brook, Saddle River, Salem, Sayreville, Schooleys Mountain, Scotch Plains, Sea Girt, Sea Isle City, Seaside Heights, Seaside Park, Secaucus, Sergeantsville, Sewaren, Sewell, Shiloh, Short Hills, Shrewsbury, Sicklerville, Skillman, Somerdale, Somers Point, Somerset, Somerville, South Amboy, South Bound Brook, South Dennis, South Hackensack, South Orange, South Plainfield, South River, South Seaville, Sparta, Spotswood, Spring Lake, Springfield, Stanhope, Stanton, Stewartsville, Stillwater, Stirling, Stockholm, Stockton, Stone Harbor, Stratford, Strathmere, Succasunna, Summit, Sussex, Swartswood, Swedesboro, Teaneck, Tenafly, Tennent, Teterboro, Thorofare, Three Bridges, Titusville, Toms River, Totowa, Towaco, Tranquility, Trenton, Tuckahoe, Tuckerton, Union, Union City, Vauxhall, Ventnor City, Vernon, Verona, Vienna, Villas, Vincentown, Vineland, Voorhees, Waldwick, Wallington, Wallpack Center, Wanaque, Waretown, Warren, Washington, Watchung, Waterford Works, Wayne, Wenonah, West Berlin, West Creek, West Long Branch, West Milford, West New York, WestOrange, West Paterson, Westfield, Westville, Westwood, Wharton, Whippany, Whitehouse, Whitehouse Station, Whitesboro, Whiting, Wickatunk, Wildwood, Williamstown, Willingboro, Windsor, Winslow, Wood Ridge, Woodbine, Woodbridge, Woodbury, Woodbury Heights, Woodcliff Lake, Woodstown, Wrightstown, Wyckoff, Zarephath,
Auto Repair, Brake Repair, Muffler Repair, Radiator Repair, Car Repair, Windshield Repair, Tune-Up. We also sell and install trailer hitches!